Thông tư 23/2012/TT-BKHCN

Circular No. 23/2012/TT-BKHCN of November 23, 2012, guiding on radioactive material transport safety

Nội dung toàn văn Circular No. 23/2012/TT-BKHCN guiding on radioactive material transport safety


THE MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
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SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
Independence-Freedom- Happiness

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No. 23/2012/TT-BKHCN

Hanoi, November 23, 2012

 

CIRCULAR

GUIDING ON RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL TRANSPORT SAFETY

Pursuant to the June 03, 2008 Law on atomic energy;

Pursuant to the Government’s Decree No. 28/2008/ND-CP of March 14, 2008 defining the functions, tasks, powers and organizational structure of the Ministry of Science and Technology;    

The Minister of science and technology guiding on radioactive material transport safety,

Chapter 1.

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1. Scope of regulation

1. This Circular guides assurance of radioactive material transport safety including from design, manufacture, test, packing of radioactive packages to transport, preservation on road, as well as receipt at the final destination, of radioactive material and packages in normal conditions as well as in the event of incidents, accidents.

This Circular does not apply to the transport of:

a) The radioactive material in scope of facility conducting radioactive work without use of public roads;

b) Consumption goods containing radioactive substances that are allowed to circulate and distribute;

c) Radioactive material that their specific activity is lower than the specific activity of exempted radioactive material or their total activity is lower than activity limit of an exempted consignment specified in Columns 4 and 5 of Table 1, Table 2 of Vietnam Standards TCVN 6867-1:2001 "Radiation Safety - Safe Transportation of Radioactive Material - Part 1: General Provisions (hereinafter referred to as TCVN 6868-1:2001);

d) Radioactive material have been put into body of alive people or animals for purpose of health diagnostic and treatment.

Article 2. Subjects of application

This Circular applies to organizations, individuals taking part in and relating to activities of transport of radioactive material in solid, liquid, gas by means of transport of road, railway, waterway and airway.

Article 3. Interpretation of terms

In this Circular, the following terms are construed as follows:

1. Measurement units in this Circular is abbreviated as prescribed in Annex III of this Circular.

2. A1 means value used in order to define the activity limit of special-form radioactive material in radioactive packages that are allowed to transport. The A1 value specified in column 2 table 1, table 2 TCVN 6867-1:2001.

3. A3 means value used in order to define the activity limit of ordinary-form radioactive material in radioactive packages that are allowed to transport. The A2 value specified in column 3 table 1, table 2 TCVN 6867-1:2001.

4. The specific activity of radioactive material means activity per weight of material in which the radionuclide(s) are dispersed uniformly.  Unit is Bq/g.

5. Low hazardous alpha emitters mean natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium, uranium 238, thorium 232, ores or crystallized ores containing thorium 228 and thorium 230 or alpha emitters with half-life of less than 10 days.

6. A low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material means the radioactive material, on its nature,  with low specific activity or radioactive material with average specific activity lower than the limit specified in Article 8 of this Circular.

7. A low dispersible radioactive material means a solid radioactive material that is not in powder form or a solid radioactive material in a sealed capsule to prevent dispersion.

8. Fissile materials are uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium 239, plutonium 241 or any combination of them.  Fissile material do not include natural uranium, depleted uranium that has not yet been irradiated or has been irradiated only in the thermal reactor.

9. A surface contaminated object (SCO) is a solid object that is not itself a radioactive material, but there are radioactive material sticking on its surface.

10. The radioactive contamination means the presence of radioactive substances on the surface in excess of 0.4 (Bq/cm2) for the beta and gamma emitter and low toxicity alpha emitter, or excess of 0.04 (Bq/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.

11. Removable radioactive contamination means the radioactive contamination which radioactive material can be removed from a surface in condition of normal transport.

12. Fixed radioactive contamination means the radioactive contamination not including provision in clause 11 Article 3 of this Circular.

13. Thorium not yet irradiated is the thorium that contains 10-7 gram or less than 10-7 gram of uranium 233 in one gram of thorium 232.

14. Uranium not yet irradiated is the uranium that contains 2 x 103 (Bq) or less than 2 x 103 (Bq) of Plutoni, 9 x 106 (Bq) or less than 9 x 106 (Bq) of fissile products and 5 x 10-3 gram or less than 5 x 10-3 gram of uranium 236 in one gram of uranium 235.

15. Natural uranium is uranium containing 99.28% uranium 238 and 0.72% uranium 235.

16. Depleted uranium is the uranium that contains less than 0.72% of uranium 235 isotope.

17. Enriched uranium is the uranium that contains greater than 0.72% of uranium 235 isotope.

18. Containment means the assembly of components essential for covering all the radioactive material, preventing adverse effects caused by the radioactive material and suitable for the transported radioactive material characteristics.  The containment can comprise of several layers, adsorber, structure separating or shielding radiation, and equipment for loading, unloading, ventilation, pressure reduction, cooling, shaking reduction, heat insulation, and transportation.  The containment can be boxes, tank, containers, cistern.

19. Radioactive package (referred to as package) is a structure comprising containments and radioactive material inside, and prepared to be transported.

20. Radioactive consignment (referred to as consignment) is a radioactive package or several radioactive packages transported in a same batch.

21. Container is a type of containment designed for easy use for transportation of goods by different modes of transport without unload and reload goods when changing means of transport.  The characteristics of containers shall be tight, strong and re-usable, and can be fitted with necessary devices for easy transfer of container from one means to other means.  A small container is that which has external dimensions of equal to or less than 1.5 m or an internal volume of equal to or less than 3 m3. A large container has dimensions larger than that of a small container.

22. Tank is a type of a container, tub used in transport in order to contain liquids, powders, granules, slurries, or solids with a capacity of equal to or larger than 450 liters, and a capacity of equal to or larger than 1000 litters in order to contain gases.

23. Design means the description of a special radioactive material or low dispersion radioactive material or package or packaging that allows them to be identified exactly.  The description includes technical specifications, drawings and an analysis demonstrating compliance with the regulations, National Standards and other relevant regulations.

24. Transport Index (denoted as TI) means the index of packages or containers holding radioactive material being used in order to control over irradiation during transport in order to ensure radioactive safety.  The calculation for TI is specified in Article 23 of this Circular.

25. Critical safety Index (denoted as CSI) means the index of package or container holding fissile material aiming to control over weight of fissile material and conditions of arrangement during transport in order to ensure that such fissile material is always maintained at the critical level.  The calculation for CSI is specified in Article 24 of this Circular.

26. United Nation number (denoted as UN number) is a number series of four digits set out by the UN Council of Expert on Transport of dangerous goods in order to identify a specific substance or a group of specific substances.

27. Exclusive use means the right of the consignor in monopoly use of a means of conveyance or a large freight container, and all activities of loading and unloading of goods during transport must be implemented in accordance with instructions from the consignor or consignee.

28. The special approval means approval of a competent agency to permit application under other guidance in case transport of radioactive package fails to fully meet provisions of this Circular.

Article 4. The safety plan

Organizations, individuals participating in course of transport of radioactive material must formulate and implement safety plan. This plan includes the following requirements:

1. Measures for radiation safety during transport shall be optimized so as to keep individual radiation dose (hereinafter referred to as dose) lower than the provided dose limit and there measures in order to reduce low the dose and number of persons exposed to radiation.

2. There are plans for individual radiation protection and inspection of radioactive contamination of packages, packaging areas, storage areas and transportation means, dossiers of inspection shall be established and kept.

3. The staff participating in course of transport must be trained in radiation safety at facilities licensed for training, have good knowledge in rule of fire fighting and prevention and regulations on radioactive material safety transport.

4. The radioactive packages must be isolated from the escort staff and the public.  Isolation distance shall be calculated based on the following dose limits as follows:

a) Dose limit for staff of escort, loading, unloading and packaging is 5 (mSv/y);

b) Dose limit for the public in the vicinity of the radioactive area: 1 (mSv/y).

5. Radioactive packages must be isolated from undeveloped films.  The basis for calculation of isolation distance is the dose limit, that is 0.1 (mSv/ package of film).

Article 5. The security plan

Organizations, individuals participating in activities of radioactive material transport must elaborate and implement security plan under guides of the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Article 6. Plans for emergency response during transport         

Organizations, individuals participating in activities of radioactive material transport must elaborate and implement plan for emergency response at basis level under guides of the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Article 7. Quality assurance

Organizations, individuals participating in activities of transport must elaborate and implement program on quality assurance under guides of the Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear.

Chapter 2.

CLASSIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL AND RADIOACTIVE PACKAGES

ITEM 1. CLASSIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL 

Article 8. Radioactive material with low specific activity

Radioactive material with low specific activity include: LSA-I, LSA-II and LSA-III.

1. LSA-I includes:

a) Uranium ores, thorium ores or their crystallized ores and other ores containing natural the radionuclide(s) used in order to produce these the radionuclide(s);

b) Natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium, their compounds or mixtures in condition that they have not yet been irradiated and being in solid or liquid form;

c) Radioactive material which its A2 value is not be limited, except fissile material not be exempted as specified in clause 1 Article 12 of this Circular;

d) Other radioactive material which their activities are dispersed uniformly and their average specific activities not exceed 30 times of activity concentration value specified in column 4 table 1 and column 4 table 2 TCVN 6867-1:2001, except fissile material not be exempted as specified in clause 1 Article 12 of this Circular.

2. LSA-II includes:

a) Water with tritium concentration of up to 0.8 (TBq/L);

b) Other radioactive material which their activities are dispersed uniformly and their average specific activities not exceed 10-4 A2 (TBq/g) for solid, gas and 10-5 A2 (TBq/g) for liquid.

3. LSA-III includes:

a) Radioactive material which are dispersed in solid or radioactive material which are dispersed in solidified agents (such as concrete, asphalt, porcelain, etc); 

b) The slightly-soluble radioactive material or radioactive material contained in slightly-soluble packagings and in case of packaging loss, radioactive material diminished when soaked in water for 7 days shall not exceed  0.1 A2 (TBq);

c) Solid radioactive material with average specific activity (not including shelding material) not exceeding 2 x 10-3 A2 (TBq/g). 

Article 9. The surface contaminated objects

The surface contaminated objects include SCO-I and SCO-II.   

1. SCO-I is a solid with the following characteristics:

a) The removable contamination on an accessible surface, for average on area of 300 (cm2) (or the total area of the surface if less than 300 (cm2)) that does not exceed 4 (Bq/cm2) for beta and gamma emitters and low hazardous alpha emitters, or does not exceed 0.4 (Bq/cm2) for the other alpha emitters;

b) The fixed contamination on the accessible surface for average on area of 300 (cm2) (or the total area of the surface of less than 300 (cm2)) that does not exceed 4 x 104 (Bq/cm2) for beta and gamma emitters and low hazardous alpha emitters, or does not exceed 4 x 103 (Bq/cm2) for the other alpha emitters;

c) The removable contamination and the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface, for average on area of 300 (cm2) (or the total area of the surface of less than 300 (cm2)) that does not exceed 4 x 104 (Bq/cm2) for beta and gamma emitters and low hazardous alpha emitters, or 4 x 103 (Bq/cm2) for the other alpha emitters;

2. SCO-II is a solid that may be the fixed or removable contamination on the surface exceeds the limits specified for SCO-I and having the following additional characteristics:

a) The removable contamination on an accessible surface, for average on area of 300 (cm2) (or the total area of the surface if less than 300 (cm2)) that does not exceed 400 (Bq/cm2) for beta and gamma emitters and low hazardous alpha emitters, or does not exceed 40 (Bq/cm2) for the other alpha emitters;

b) The fixed contamination on the accessible surface for average on area of 300 (cm2) (or the total area of the surface of less than 300 (cm2)) that does not exceed 8 x 105 (Bq/cm2) for beta and gamma emitters and low hazardous alpha emitters, or does not exceed 8 x 104 (Bq/cm2) for the other alpha emitters;

c) The removable contamination and the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface, for average on area of 300 (cm2) (or the total area of the surface of less than 300 (cm2)) that does not exceed 8 x 105 (Bq/cm2) for beta and gamma emitters and low hazardous alpha emitters, or does not exceed 8 x 104 (Bq/cm2) for the other alpha emitters;

Article 10. Radioactive material of special form

1. Radioactive material of special form is radioactive material of solid form or being held in a sealed capsule to not disperse radioactivity into ambience.  The sealed capsule that constitute radioactive material of special form is manufactured in condition that it cannot open without destruction.  Sizes of radioactive material of special form are minimally not fewer than 5 (mm).

2. Design (if any) of radioactive material of special form must be approved by competent agencies of nation having design.

Article 11. Radioactive material with low dispersion

1. A radioactive material is radioactive material with low dispersion if total volume of this radioactive material in packages has radiation dose at distance of 3 (m) from the radioactive without shielding not exceed 10 (mSv/h);

2. Design (if any) of radioactive material with low dispersion must be approved by competent agencies of nation having design and nations being destination or places where material transported pass.

Article 12. Fissile material

1. Packages containing fissile material are classified as table 7, Annex 1, except case satisfying one of the following conditions:

a) Limit on volume of fissile material in a consignment with minimum outer size of each package not fewer than 10 (cm):

M1 is volume of uranium 235 (g);

M2 is volume of other fissile material (g);

X and Y are values defined in table 2, Annex I;

And satisfying one of the following conditions: Each consignment does not contain more than 15 (g) fissile material; fissile material are solution containing homogenous hydrogen or mixture with rate of fissile nuclear volume and hydrogen fewer than 5%; in any volume of 10 (L), there are not more than 5 (g) fissile material.

b) Uranium 235 enriched maximally for volume and total volume of plutonium and uranium 233 does not exceed 1% of volume of uranium 235 in condition that fissile nucleus are dispersed in almost homogenous way. Is is required to arrange in no stacking if uranium 235 in form of plate, oxide or carbide;

c) The uranyl nitrate solution in which uranium 235 enriched maximally for 2% volume and total volume of plutonium and uranium 233 does not exceed 0.002% of volume of uranium 235 and rate of nitrogen atom for uranium not fewer than 2.

d) In a goods batch, volume of plutonium not more than 20% of volume of fissile nucleus and maximum volume of plutonium is 1 (kg). For cases are unlike one stated in this point, the form of exclusive transport must be used.

2. Packages containing fissile materials which are not permitted to contain:

a) Volume of fissile material is unlike the value approved for design of packages;

b) The radionuclide(s) or fissile material that are unlike the approved design of packages;

c) Fissile material having forms, physical and chemical conditions or space arrangement that are unlike the approved design of packages;

3. Design of packages containing radioactive material must be approved by competent agencies of nation having design and nations being destination or places where packages transported pass.

Article 13.  Uranium hexafluoride (UF6)

1. Uranium hexafluoride is classified as table 7, Annex 1 and packages containing Uranium hexafluoride do not permit to contain:

a) Volume of UF6 that is unlike the value approved for design of packages by competent agencies;

b) Volume of UF6 that is more than value leading to the loss of a volume fewer than 5% at the permitted maximum temperature of package;

c) UF6 that is not in solid form or the inside pressure of package is more than atmospheric pressure upon beginning transport.

2. Designs of packages containing a volume of more than or equal to 0.1 (kg) UF6 must be approved by competent agencies of nation having such designs. Designs of packages containing a volume of more than or equal to 0.1 (kg) UF6 must be approved by competent agencies of nation having such designs.

ITEM 2. CLASSIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE PACKAGES

Article 14. Excepted packages

1. Empty packagings that had been contained radioactive material.

2. Packages containing tools, articles of radioactive material with the radioactive activity not exceeding values specified in table 1 Annex I of this Circular. 

3. Packages containing articles manufactured from natural uraniums, depleted uraniums or natural thoriniums.

4. Designs of excepted packages are not required to be approved by competent agencies of nation having design and nations being destination or places where packages transported pass.

Article 15. Industrial packages

Industrial packeages are packages containing LSA and SCO. Volume of radioactive material in a package shall be restrained in condition that the activity for means of transport is not more than values specified in table 4 Annex I of this Circular.  Industrial packages include:

1. Industrial packages of type 1 (denoted as IP-1) contain:

a) LSA-I in solid form;

b) LSA-I in liquid form, transported by exclusive use;

c) SCO-I.

2. Industrial packages of type 2 (denoted as IP-2) contain:

b) LSA-I in liquid form, transported by shared use;

b) LSA-II in solid form;

c) LSA-II in liquid or gas form, transported by exclusive use;

d) LSA-II transported by exclusive use;

e) SCO-II.

3. Industrial packages of type 3 (denoted as IP-3) contain:

a) LSA-II in gas and liquid form, transported by shared use;

b) LSA-III transported by shared use;

4. Designs of industrial packages are not required to be approved by competent agencies of nation having design and nations being destination or places where packages transported pass.

Article 16. A-type packages

1. Packages containing radioactive material of special form with the activity not more than A1 (TBq).

2. Packages containing other radioactive material with the activity not more than A2 (TBq).

3. Packages containing mixtures of the radionuclide(s) that have been identified name and radioactive activity, the activity of this nucleus must satisfy:

In which:

A1(i) is value of A1 of the radionuclide(s) i; 

A2(j) is value of A2 of the radionuclide(s) j;

B(i) means activity of the radionuclide(s) i in special-form radioactive material.

C(j) means activity of the radionuclide(s) j in normal radioactive material.

4. Designs of A-type packages are not required to be approved by competent agencies of nation having design and nations being destination or places where packages transported pass.

Article 17. B-type packages

1. B-type packages are not allowed to contain:

a) Radioactive material with the activities that are more than the value approved for design of packages;

b) The radionuclide(s) that are unlike the approved design of packages;

c) Radioactive material having forms, physical or chemical conditions unlike the approved design of packages;

2. If B-type packages are transported by plane, the provisions in clause 1 of this Article and the following conditions must be complied:

a) Packages containing radioactive material of special form: the activity not exceed 3,000 A1 (TBq) or 100,000 A2 (TBq);

b) Packages containing other radioactive material: the activity not exceed 3,000 A2 (TBq).  

3. B-type packages include 2 types of B(U) and B(M):

a) Design of packages of B(U) type must be approved by competent agencies of nation having such design. If packages of B(U) type containing fissile material or radioactive material that have low dispersion, the design must be approved by competent agencies of nation having design and nations being destination or places where packages are transported pass.

b) Design of packages of B(M) type must be approved by competent agencies of nation having design and nations being destination or places where packages are transported pass.

Article 18. C-type packages

1. C-type packages are not allowed to contain:

a) Radioactive material with the activities that are more than the value approved for design of packages;

b) The radionuclide(s) that are unlike the approved design of packages;

c) Radioactive material having forms, physical or chemical conditions unlike the approved design of packages;

2. Design of packages of C type must be approved by competent agencies of nation having such design. If the packages of C type containing fissile material, their design must be approved by competent agencies of nation having design and nations being destination or places where packages are transported pass.

Chapter 3.

PROVISIONS FOR TRANSPORT

Article 19. Requirements before transport

1. To ensure that the used packages must meet relevant requirements stipulated in this Circular.

2. For packages that have been approved and granted certificate by competent agencies, must meet requirements stipulated in the certificate. 

3. For radioactive material of special form and radioactive material with low dispersion, that have been approved by competent agencies, must meet requirements stipulated in the certificate.

4. For packages of B(U), B(M) and C types, they must kept in stable status of temperature and pressure before carrying out transport, except case these requirements have been exempted by permission of agencies competent to approve such design.

5. Packages of B(U), B(M) and C types and packages containing fissile material must be checked before transport in order to ensure not happen radioactive leakage.

Article 20. Transport for other goods

1. Packages are not permitted to contain other items except items that are neccesary for use of radioactive material and these items must be ensured to not affect to safety of packages.

2. If using containers that have been used to transport radioactive material for temporary preservation or transport of other goods, such containers must be decontaminated to degree lower than 0.4 (Bq/cm2) for the beta and gamma emitter and low toxicity alpha emitter, or 0.04 (Bq/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.

3. During transport, packages must be separated with food, pharmaceutical products and other dangerous goods.

Article 21. Control of radioactive contamination

1. The removable contamination on the surface of package does not exceed the following limits:

a) 4 (Bq/cm2) for the beta and gamma emitter and low toxicity alpha emitter;

b) 0.4 (Bq/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.

The limited values is calculated for average on area of 300 (cm2) or all area of surface if less than 300 (cm2).

2. The removable contamination on the surface outside or inside of packagings, containers, tanks and means of transport not exceed limits specified in clause 1 of this Article.

3. In case packages are corrupted or leaked radioactivity or have doubts of being corrupted or leaked radioactivity, the contaminated area should be isolated and delineated. To conduct assessment of radioactive contamination for packages, means of transport, areas where loading and unloading packages.  If it is necessary, to conduct assessment of radioactive contamination for all other items which are transported on the same means of transport.

Packages being corrupted or leaked radioactivity exceeding the permitted limits specified in Article 21, Article 22 of this Circular must be moved to proper places for repair, decontamination until the origin status is restored, then they may continue transport.

4. Means, equipments used for transport must be tested to define degree of radioactive contamination. The testing frequency is depend on degree of use but not fewer than 1 times per year.

Means, equipment used for transport and contaminated radioactivity exceeding limits specified in clause 1 of this Article or radiation dose rate in surface more than 5 (mSv/h) must be decontaminated and only re-use when it is ensured to not exceed limits specified in clause 1 of this Article and radiation dose rate in surface not exceeding 5 (mSv/h).

5. In exclusive use, provisions in clause 1 and clause 4 of this article are not required to apply in control of contamination in surface, inside of containers, tanks and means of transport of radioactive material not be packed.    

Article 22. Conditions on radiation dose rate for transport

1. For excepted packages, the radiation dose rate at near of surface of packages is not more than 5 (mSv/h).

2. For packages of other types, the radiation dose rate on outside of packages is not more than 2 (mSv/h).

3. For equipment or items not be packed, the radiation dose rate at point with distance of 10 (cm) from the outside surface is not more than 0.1 (mSv/h).

4. For LSA or SCO contained in each industry package of IP-1, IP-2 or IP-3 types, the dose rate at point with distance of 3 (m) from LSA or SCO when not be shielded is not more than 10 (mSv/h).

5. For transport of exclusive use:

a) By road or railway: The radiation dose rate on outside surface of each package may be more than 2 (mSv/h) but not more than 10 (mSv/h) when meeting conditions of means of transport being protected or covered tightly aiming to during transport, except the persons allowed, noone can enter inside of the part having been covered tightly; reinforce to ensure that packages in fixed position inside of means of transport during course of transport; packages are ensured not to load additionally or unload during the transport time; 

b) By airway or waterway: The radiation dose rate on the outside surface of each package is not more than 2 (mSv/h). If being more than this level, it is forced to not be more than 10 (mSv/h) and must be permitted by the Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear (Ministry of Science and Technology).

6. For means of transport containing packages or containers, the radiation dose rate in any point on sides of vehicles (including above and substructure of vehicles) is not more than 2 (mSv/h) and radiation dose rate at distance of 2 (m) from outside surface of means of transport is not more than 0.1 (mSv/h).

7. At position of seat for person on means of transport, the radiation dose rate does not exceed 0.02 (mSv/h) in case this person is not shielded from radiation.

Article 23. Defining the transport index (TI) and TI allowed

1. TI for each package, container or for LSA-I or SCO-I material not be packed is defined as follows:

a) For packages containing radioactive material not being fissile material, measuring the maximum radiation dose rate (measurement unit is mSv/h) at distance of 1 (m) from the outside surface of packages. The measured value is multiplied with 10 and the getting result is TI;

b) For packages containing fissile material, the maximum radiation dose rate at distance of 1 (m) from the outside surface of packages has value as follows: 0.4 (mSv/h) for ores or physical crystallized ores of uranium and thorium; 0.3 (mSv/h) for chemical crystallized ores of thorium; 0.02 (mSv/h) for chemical crystallized ores of uranium, except urani hexaflorua. This value is multiplied with 100 and the getting result is TI;

c) For containers and LSA-I and SCO-I material not packed, measuring the maximum radiation dose rate (measurement unit is mSv/h) at distance of 1 (m) from the outside surface of containers and LSA-I and SCO-I material. The measured value is multiplied with the corresponding coefficient specified in table 5, Annex I of this Circular and the getting result is TI;

d) The values of TI getting at points a, b and c clause 1 of this Article are rounded up to the first decimal number (example 1.13 into 1.2), except values equal to or fewer than 0.05 shall be consider as 0.

2. TI for containers or means of transport containing many packages, shall be defined by total TI of all packages or by defining directly the radiation dose rate as prescribed in clause 1 of this Article. 

3. Provisions on TI allowed:

a) TI of each package is not more than 10, except case of exclusive use transport;

b) TIs for containers or means of transport with shared use are specified in Table 8 Annex I of this Circular'

c) For transport of LSA-I material, limit of total TI is not provided;

d) For exclusive use, limit of total TI is not provided.

Article 24. Defining the Critical safety Index (CSI) and CSI allowed to transport

1. CSI for packages containing fissile material is defined by dividing 50 for N, in which N is smaller value calculated in two following conditions:

a) In normal transportation condition, “N" is defined by taking 5 times of “N” packages in condition that arrangement and packing of packages allow to produce maximum neutron as follows, and still ensure lower than critical condition.

No separation among packages and arranging packages in order to all surfaces are reflected by water wall with thickness not fewer than 20 cm;

b) In transportation condition happening assumed malfunction, “N" is defined by taking 2 times of “N” packages in condition that arrangement and packing of packages allow to produce maximum neutron as follows, and still ensure lower than critical condition:

There are retardants containing hydrogen among packages and arrangement of packages for all surfaces to be reflected by water wall with thickness not fewer than 20 (cm).

2. CSI for packagings, containers for transport, which contain many packages, is defined by total CSI of all packages.  CSI of packagings, containers is equal 0, meaning that number of packages at below of the critical condition is not limited in such packagings, containers.

3. Provisions on CSI allowed to transport:

a) CSI of packages, packagings and containers is not more than 50, except case of exclusive use transport;  Consignments containing many packages, containers should be arranged, preserved by each group. Distance among groups should be ensured to equal to or not nearer than 6 (m);

b) Total CSI of container of means of transport with exclusive use and shared use is specified in Table 9 Annex I of this Circular.

Article 25. Marking packages

1. The outside surface of packagings for packages must clearly indicate the following information:

a) Names of the consignor and consignee;

b) United Nation Number as given in Table 7 Annex I of this Circular;

c) Gross mass of the package if it exceeds 50 (kg);

d) Symbol of the package group, in conformity with the design:

For industrial packages, writing:  IP-1, IP-2, IP-3 (IF for packages containing fissile material); For packages of A type, writing: A type (AF for packages containing fissile material); For packages of B type, writing: B(U) type or B(M) type, B(U)F or B(M)F type for packages containing fissile material); For packages of C type, writing: C type (CF for packages containing fissile material);

e) For packages of B(U) type, B(M) type and C type, the outside surface must have a sign to warn radiation specified in picture 1 Annex II of this Circular.  This warning sign shall be embossed or stamped resistant to fire and water.

2. For LSA-I or SCO-I material contaminated radioactivity on surface not more than 10 times of level specified in clause 9 article 3 of this Circular, they are required to apply exclusive use, and the outside surface of tanks of wrapping material must be clearly written:    “RADIOACTIVE LSA-I” or “RADIOACTIVE SCO-I” as appropriate.

3. In case that the package is imported or exported, terms for explanation are written in Vietnamese or English.

Article 26. Labelling on packages

1. Packages are categorised for labeling in conformity with conditions specified in Table 6, Annex I of this Circular and following the following principle:

a) If the TI satisfies conditions for a category but the surface radiation dose level is in accordance with the conditions for a higher category, the package shall be categorised as the higher category;

b) Each package must be labeled in conformity with its category;

c) Labels for categories are specified in Picture 2, Picture 3 and Picture 4 Annex II of this Circular.  Packages containing fissile material shall have additionally labels specified in Picture 6 Annex II of this Circular;

d) In case that the package is imported or exported, content of label is written in Vietnamese or English.

2. Any labels which do not relate to the contents in the package must be removed or under-covered.

3. Labelling is not required for excepted packages, wrappings. For other packages and wrappings, labels must be affixed to two opposite sides of the package or wrapping outside. For containers or tanks, labels must be affixed on all four outside sides.  For large freight containers must be affixed with the large size labels as determined in Picture 5 Annex II of this Circular side by side labels specified in Picture 2, Picture 3 and Picture 4 Annex II of this Circular.

4. Each label shall consist of the following information:

a) Except for LSA-I material, name(s) of the radionuclide(s) (using the symbols prescribed in Table I TCVN 6867-1: 2001).  For mixtures of radionuclides:  Names of the most restrictive radionuclides must be listed in label.  For LSA-I material, only the label LSA-I is required.

b) Activity: The maximum activity of radionuclides, in unit of Bq with proper prefixes (kBq, MBq, etc).  For fissile material, listed volume; in unit of g;

c) TI: Not require for I-WHITE category. For fissile material, additionally listed CSI.

Article 27. Affixing the warning labels to containers and means of transport

1. Freight containers or tanks carrying packages other than excepted packages must bear four yellow warning labels as specified in Picture 5 Annex II of this Circular.  In case that the package is imported or exported, the term “RADIOACTIVE” may be written in English. The warning labels shall be vertically affixed to each side of the freight container or tank.  Labels as specified in Picture 2, Picture 3, Picture 4 Annex II of this Circular with the dimensions of the minimum size indicated in Picture 5 Annex II of this Circular can be used to replace for affixing of warning labels.

2. Means of transport of radioactive material must be affixed with three yellow lables as specified in Picture 5 Annex II of this Circular on the two sides and rear side.

3. The freight container or tank containing packages of LSA-I or SCO-I type that is not packaged or the packages of radioactive material that is packaged, with exclusive use, must be affixed with the appropriate United Nations number (as specified in Table 7 Annex I of this Circular) in black and 65 mm high or more on the lower half of the label (as specified in Picture 5 Annex II of this Circular).

Article 28. Isolation during transport and transit storage

1. During transport and transit storage, packages and freight containers containing radioactive material must be isolated from:

a) Areas occupied by people and undeveloped photographic films with the distance as specified in clause 4 and clause 5 Article 4 of this Circular;

b) Other dangerous goods: flammable, explosive, harmful.

2. Category II-Yellow, III-Yellow packages or consigments shall not be carried in passenger compartments, except those solely reversed for special authorised escorts.

3. For transport of fissile material, when storing, group of packages or container with the CSI exceeding the value of 50 must be placed at least 6m far from each others.

4. The transporter must have the responsibility to maintain the required distance during transport and transit stores.

Article 29. Arrangement of packages during transport and transit storage

1. Packages shall be safely and firmly arranged so as to prevent moving, toppling or falling.

2. Packages shall be arranged in such manner that their average surface heat fluxes do not exceed 15 (W/m2).

3. Loading packages onto a container or means of transport shall be in such manner that the surface radioactive dose rate, TI and CSI do not exceed the limits specified in clause 6 Article 22, clause 3 Article 23 and clause 3 Article 24 of this Circular.

Article 30. Provisions for transport of empty packagings

Empty packagings that have been used for radioactive material may be transported as excepted packages if the following requirements are met:

1. They are in well maintained conditions and air-tight ensured.

2. Empty packagings that have been used for uranium or thorium must be protected with metal shield or other solid material.

3. The level of removable contamination on the package internal does not exceed 100 times the level specified in point a clause 1 Article 9 of this Circular.

4. Any labels have been uused must be covered or removed in conformity with regulations.

Article 31. Provisions for transport by road

Organizations, individuals participating in and relating to transport of radioactive material by road, apart from implementation of general provisions from Article 19 to Article 29, they must implement the following regulations: 

1. Transportation of radioactive material by road shall be by trucks only. The truck used for radioactive material transportation must have high safety level.

2. Carrying passengers are prohibited in truck used for radioactive material transportation, except for case of carrying the excepted packages.

3. It is forced to use truck with hood upon transporting non-water-resistant packages.

4. Vehicle with trailers shall not be used for transportation of radioactive material.

5. Vehicle shall have labels as prescribed in Article 27 of this Circular and the consignor shall have the responsibility to affix the label appropriately.

6. Parking vehicle must be guarded, except that the radiation dose rate at any position of the vehicle is lower than 5 (mSv/h) and the compartment must be locked so as to prevent anyone in bringing the packages out. The vehicle must be parked 50 m far from population area, except for unloading into storages.

7. Drivers must possess certificate of training in radiation safety and be trained to handle malfunction during transportation and be equipped with a suitable dosimeter.  If these requirements are not satisfied, each consignment shall be escorted by a person whose quality satisfies all the above requirements (except case of transport of excepted packages).

Article 32. Provisions for transport by railway

Organizations, individuals participating in and relating to transport of radioactive materials by railway, apart from implementation of general provisions from Article 19 to Article 29, they must implement the following regulations:

1. Radioactive material is allowed to be transported by freight train or in luggage compartment of passenger train.  Non-water-resistant radioactive packages shall be transported by using carriages with roof.

2. The carriages carrying radioactive goods must be affixed label as specified in Article 27 of this Circular at both sides.  In case of the carriages with no walls, carrying containers, labelling the containers is sufficient.  The consignor shall be responsible for labelling appropriately.

3. During transportation (except for the transportation of excepted packages), escort shall be required.  The escort must possess certificate of training in radiation safety, and be trained to handle malfunction during transportation and be equipped with suitable dosimeter.

Article 33. Provisions for transport by airway

Organizations, individuals participating in and relating to transport of radioactive materials by airway, apart from implementation of general provisions from Article 19 to Article 29, they must implement the following regulations:

Packages or containers containing radioactive material with one of characteristics below shall not be transported by airway:

1. Packages of B(M) type in exclusive use.

2. Packages of B(M) type during transport are required to have a outside-cooling part or packages containing material being flammable liquid.

3. Packages with surface radiation dose rate more than 2 (mSv/h), except special case have been approved.

Chapter 4.

RESPONSIBILITY FOR ASSURANCE OF RADIATION SAFETY

Article 34. Consignor’s responsibility

1. The consignor shall have the responsibility to ensure radiation safety during transportation of radiation material, including packaging checking, packaging, surface decontamination (if necessary), sealing, labelling until the package are handed over to the transporter.  The consignor shall prepare packages in compliance with this Circular, National Technical Regulations and other provisions on goods transportation.

2. The consignor shall include in the transport documents with each consignment the following information:

a) Shipping name as specified in Table 6 Annex I of this Circular;

b) The United Nation number: 7;

c) The United Nation number assigned to the radioactive material as specified in Table 7 Annex I of this Circular, preceded by the letters UN;

d) Name or symbol of each radionuclide, for mixtures of radionuclides, an appropriate general description or a list of the most restrictive radionuclides;

dd) A description of the physical and chemical form of the radioactive material, or a notation “Special radioactive material” or “Low dispersible radioactive material”, respectively;

e) The maximum activity of radionuclides, in unit of Bq with proper prefixes (kBq, MBq, etc).  Volume For fissile materials, in unit of g;

g) The category of the package: I-WHITE, or II-YELLOW, or III-YELLOW;

h) The transport index (for categories II-YELLOW and III-YELLOW only); CSI (for transport of fissile materials not subject to be exempted);

i) Identification number in the certificate issued by the competent authority of production nation that approved for the transportation of special radioactive material, low dispersible radioactive material, special approval, package design); 

k) For consignments including packages in container, a detailed statement of the contents of each package within the freight container shall be required.  If packages are to be unloaded from the freight container at an intermediate point, appropriate transport documents shall be made available.

l) If a consignment is required to be exclusively transported, recording "EXCLUSIVE USE TRANSPORT”;

m) The total activity of consignment in type as a multiple of A2, for LSA-II, LSA-III, SCO-I and SCO-II.  For radioactive material with value of A2 not be limited, value of activity of such radioactive material shall be 0.

3. The consignor shall include in the transport documents a declaration on goods in consignment and such goods must be fully and accurately described and are classified, packed, marked and labelled, and comply with conditions for transport as prescribed by current law and international provisions (if the consignment is transported pass other country(ies)). Date of transportation and signature.

4. The consignor shall inform the transporter in writing enclosed in transport documents to implement necessary requirements including at least of the following points that should be met:

a) Additional requirements for arrangement, storage, loading and unloading of the packages, including any special requirements on storage for heat dissipation safety;

b) Restrictions on the mode of transportation and necessary instructions for transportation;

c) Emergency response measures appropriate to the consignment.

Article 35. Transporter’s responsibility

1. In addition to the applicable provisions on goods transportation, the transporter may accept the consignment if the following requirements are met:

a) The transporter has obtained all required relevant declaration, approval certificates, transport permits in accordance to law and guides on transportation;

b) The transporter has checked carefully that the packages, consignments and freight containers are in accordance with the declaration and satisfy provisions of this Circular.  In case that there is inconsistency, the transporter shall have right to refuse transportation, make report and send copies to concerned parties (consignor, consignee) and the competent authority.

2. The transporter shall have responsibility to ensure radiation safe during transportation and transshipment storage, including responsibility to record diary of reading dose rate during transportation.

3. The transporter shall inform specifically plan, roadmap of radioactive material transport to the Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear and Departments of science and technology on transport routes.

Article 36. Consignee’s responsibility

1. The consignee shall coordinate with consignor, transporter to receive safely, on schedule, and release fastly packages from place of receipt. 

2. The consignee shall participate in consequence remedy together with relevant organizations, individuals when happening malfunction.

3. The consignee shall report immediately for consignor and the Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear when detecting the goods received are not inconsistent with transport contract on category, quantity, packages denote being corrupted, unloaded, leaked radioactivity.

Article 37. The responsibility of party keeping radioactive packages in transshipment storages

1. This party shall coordinate with transporter, consignee to receive safely, and release fastly radioactive packages from place of receipt.

2. This party shall participate in consequence remedy together with relevant parties when happening malfunction.

3. This party shall report immediately for the Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear when detecting that the radioactive packages denote being corrupted, unloaded, leaked radioactivity; or no receiver. 

Article 38. Checking, Inspection and Control of Customs agencies

1. Customs may unpack packages containing radioactive material for checking only if the packages are suspected to contain illegal goods.

2. The unpacking of a radioactive material package requires the presence of representative(s) from the Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear and local department of science and technology, and shall take place at a place where radiation safety is guaranteed and there are appropriate devices for checking.

3. Any packages that has been unpacked must be repacked to its original status before being handed over to the transporter, consignee.

4. If a consignment has no receiver, the customs agencies shall be informed and coordinate with the Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear for handling.

Article 39. Response to incidents, accidents during transportation of radioactive material

1. In the event of incidents, accidents during transportation, the escort or the controller of the transport means shall take the following steps:

a) Immediately inform agency granting permit of radioactive material transport; the local police and the department of science and technology where the incident or accident occurs; the ower of transport means; consignment owner; the consignee;

b) Take the victim(s) (if any) away from the incident or accident area (in according to wind direction) for first aid treatment and to the nearest clinic;

c) Check if there is any risk of fire and apply measures to overcome;

d) Isolate people 50 m to 200 m away from the incident, accident area and protect the area from unauthorised access.

2. Once being informed of an incident or accident, relevant parties as indicated in point a clause 1 of this Article shall send their staff equipped with essential equipment to the scene to minimise consequences as planned (as prescribed in Article 6 of this Circular).  Depending upon the severity of the incident or accident, the following measures shall be applied appropriately:

a) Establishing an emergency response team;

b) Radiation monitoring and delineating the area of the incident, accident so as to apply appropriate handling measures and restore the initial state;

c) Decontaminating the incident or accident area, the carrier, packages, people, clothes, safety equipment;

d) Checking water sources and food;

dd) Protecting drainage systems;

e) Detecting over-exposured persons for healthy monitoring;

g) Investigating cause(s) and setting up dossiers on the incident, accident.

3. Immediately after the accident, the transporter shall make a detail report on the accident and submit it to the Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear, local department of science and technology and police agency.

4. As soon as acknowledging the loss of radioactive material package the information shall be reported to:

a) The Department of Radiation Safety and Nuclear;

b) The local police agency;

c) The local department of science and technology;

d) The consignor.

The transporter shall provide the aforementioned agencies with necessary information that making the search, recovery of the lost package to be easy.

5. The consignor and the transporter shall bear liability before law, depended on the cause(s), level of the violation and consequences of the incident, accident.

Chapter 5.

IMPLEMENTATION PROVISIONS

Article 40. Effectiveness 

1. This Circular shall take effect 45 days after the day of signing and replace the Circular No. 14/2003/TT-BKHCN of July 11, 2003 of the Ministry of Science and Technology guiding on radioactivity transportation safety.

2. In the course of implementation, any arising problems should be reported timely to the Ministry of Science and Technology for consideration and amendment and supplementation.

 

  

FOR THE MINISTER OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
VICE MINISTER




Le Dinh Tien

 

ANNEX I

 (Enclosed with the Circular No. 23/2012/TT-BKHCN dated November 23rd 2012 of the Minister of Science and Technology)

Table 1. Radioactivity limits for excepted packages

Physical state of radioactive materials in the package

Instruments or items that contain radioactive substances (*)

Radioactive materials

Radioactivity limit (TBq) for instruments or items

Radioactivity limit (TBq) for packages

Radioactivity limit (TBq) for packages

Solid:

 

 

 

- In special forms

10-2 A1

A1

10-3 A1

- In other forms

10-2 A2

A2

10-3 A2

Liquid

10-3 A2

10-1 A2

10-4 A2

Gas

 

 

 

- Triti

2 x 10-2 A2

2 x 10-1 A2

2 x 10-2 A2

- In special forms

10-3 A1

10-2 A1

10-3 A1

- In other form

10-3 A2

10-2 A2

10-3 A2

* Radioactive substances are contained in an instrument or item, or radioactive substances Article part of it such as watches, electronic devices, etc.

Fissile material weight limits for excepted packages

Fissile materials

The weight of fissile materials (g) mixed with substances of which the hydrogen density is lower than or equal to that of water

The weight of fissile materials (g) mixed with substances of which the hydrogen density is higher than that of water

Uranium 235 (X)

400

290

Other fissile materials (Y)

250

180

Table 3. Regulations on industrial packages that contain LSA materials and SCOs

Radioactive materials

Industrial packages

Exclusive

Non-exclusive

LSA-I

 

 

- Solid (*)

Type I (IP-1)

Type I (IP-1)

-Liquid

Type I (IP-1)

Type II (IP-2)

LSA-II

 

 

- Solid

Type II (IP-2)

Type II (IP-2)

- Liquid and gas

Type II (IP-2)

Type III (EP-3)

LSA-III

Type II (IP-2)

Type III (IP-3)

SCO-I

Type I (IP-1)

Type I (IP-1)

SCO-II

Type II (IP-2)

Type II (IP-2)

Table 4. Activity limits for vehicles that transport LSA materials and SCOs in industrial packages

Characteristics of radioactive materials

Radioactivity limits (TBq) for vehicles (except for domestic ships)

Radioactivity limits (TBq) for ships

LSA-I

Unlimited

Unlimited

Non-flammable solid LSA-II and LSA-III

Unlimited

100 A2

Liquid, gas, and flammable solid LSA-II and LSA-III

100 A2

10 A2

SCOs

100 A2

10 A2

Table 5. Coefficients for calculating TI of containers

Sizes

Coefficient

Size ≤ 1 (m2)

1

1 (m2) < size="" ≤="" 5="">2)

2

5 (m2) < size="" ≤="" 20="">2)

3

Size > 20 (m2)

10

 (*) The biggest cross-section

Table 6. Classification of packages

Conditions

Class

Transport index (TI)

Radiation dose rate at any point on the outer surface of the package

0 (*)

Not higher than 5 mSv/h

I-WHITE

0 < ti="" ≤="">

Higher than 5 mSv/h, but not higher than 0.5 mSv/h

II-YELLOW

1 < ti="" ≤="">

Higher than 0,5 mSv/h, but not higher than 2 mSv/h

III-YELLOW

10 <>

Higher than 2 mSv/h, but not higher than 10 mSv/h

III-YELLOW (**)

 (*) According to Point c Clause 1 Article 24 of this Circular, TI is considered 0 if it is not higher than 0.05

 (**) Only applicable to exclusive transport.

Table 7. Names used during transport (extracted from the List of UN numbers)

UN number

Name used in the transport, and explanation

Excepted package

2908

Radioactive materials, excepted packages – Empty packages

2909

Radioactive materials, excepted packages - articles manufactured from natural Uranium or depleted Uranium, or natural thorium

2910

Radioactive materials, excepted packages – limited quantity of radioactive materials

2911

Radioactive materials, excepted packages – Instruments or Articles

Low specify activity radioactive materials

2912

Radioactive materials, low specify activity (LSA-I), non-fissile or fissile-excepted

3321

Radioactive materials, low specify activity (LSA-II), non-fissile or fissile-excepted

3322

Radioactive materials, low specify activity (LSA-III), non-fissile or fissile-excepted

3324

Radioactive materials, low specify activity (LSA-II), fissile

3325

Radioactive materials, low specify activity (LSA-III), fissile

Surface contaminated objects

2913

Radioactive materials, surface contaminated objects (SCO-I or SCO-II), non-fissile or fissile-excepted

3326

Radioactive materials, surface contaminated objects (SCO-I or SCO-II), fissile

Type A package

2915

Radioactive materials, Type A package, non-special form

3327

Radioactive materials, Type A package, fissile, non-special form

3332

Radioactive materials, Type A package - special form, non-fissile or fissile excepted

3333

Radioactive materials, Type A package, special form, fissile

Type B package

2916

Radioactive materials, Type B(U) package, non-fissile or fissile excepted

2917

Radioactive materials, Type B(M) package, non-fissile or fissile excepted

3328

Radioactive materials, Type B(U) package, fissile

3329

Radioactive materials, Type B(M) package, fissile

Type C package

3323

Radioactive materials, Type C package, non-fissile or fissile excepted

3330

Radioactive materials, Type C package, fissile

Special arrangements

2919

Radioactive materials, transported under special arrangements, non-fissile or fissile excepted

3331

Radioactive materials, transported under special arrangements, fissile

Uranium hexafluoride

2977

Radioactive materials, UF6, fissile

2978

Radioactive materials, UF6, non-fissile or fissile excepted

Table 8. TI limits for non-exclusive vehicles and containers

Kind of container or vehicle

Limit of total TI in the container or vehicle

Small containers

50

Large containers

50

Cars; trains

50

Airplanes

 

- Passenger airplanes

50

- Cargo airplanes

200

Domestic ships

50

Sea-going ships

 

Hold, hull, deck

 

- Many small containers and packages

50

- Many large containers

200

The whole ship:

 

- Many small containers and packages

200

- Many large containers

Unlimited

Table 9. CSI limits for non-exclusive vehicles that contain fissile materials

Kind of container or vehicle

Limit of total CSI for the container or vehicle

Non-exclusive

Exclusive

Small containers

50

Not applicable

Large containers

50

100

Cars; trains

50

100

Airplanes

 

 

- Passenger airplanes

50

Not applicable

- Cargo airplanes

50

100

Domestic ships

50

100

Sea-going ships

 

 

Hold, hull, deck

 

 

- Many small containers and packages

50

100

- Many large containers

50

100

The whole ship:

 

 

- Many small containers and packages

200

200

- Many large containers

Unlimited (*)

Unlimited (**)

 (*) The packages are arranged so that the total CSI of each group does not exceed 50, and the groups are at least 6 meters away from one another.

 (*) The packages are arranged so that the total CSI of each group does not exceed 100, and the groups are at least 6 meters away from one another.

 

ANNEX II

 (Enclosed with the Circular No. 23/2012/TT-BKHCN dated November 23rd 2012 of the Minister of Science and Technology)

Picture 1. The radioactivity sign

The minimum radius X of the central circle is 4 mm

Picture 2. Label I-WHITE: white background, black radioactivity sign, black text, the letter “I” is red, the minimum length of each side is 100 mm.

Picture 3. Label II-YELLOW: the upper half is yellow background, the lower half is white background, black radioactivity sign, black text, the letter “II” is red, the minimum length of each side is 100 mm.

Picture 4. Label III-YELLOW: the upper half is yellow background, the lower half is white background, black radioactivity sign, black text, the letter “III” is red, the minimum length of each side is 100 mm.

Picture 5. Radioactivity warning label: the upper half is yellow background, the lower half is white background, black radioactivity sign, black text, the minimum length of each side is 250 mm.

Picture 6. The label of critical safety index, the length of each side is 100 mm.

 

ANNEX III

 (Enclosed with the Circular No. 23/2012/TT-BKHCN dated November 23rd 2012 of the Minister of Science and Technology)

Table 1. Units of measurement

Quantity

Unit name

Unit symbol

Weight

gram

g

Length

Meter

m

Area

Square meter

m2

Volume

Cubic meter

m3

Liter

L

Time

Hour

h

Day

d

Year

y

Heat flux

Watt per square meter

W/m2

Radioactivity

Becquerel

Bq

Specify activity of radioactive materials

Becquerel per gram

Bq/g

Radioactivity Density

Becquerel per square meter

Bq/m2

Radioactivity concentration

Becquerel per liter

Bq/L

Radiation dose

Sievert

Sv

Radiation dose rate

Sievert per hour

Sv/h

Table 2. Names and symbols of prefixes, and factors

Name

Symbol

Factor

tera

T

1012

mega

M

106

kilo

k

103

centi

c

10-2

Mili

m

10-3

micro

m

10-6

 

 

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