Quyết định 149/2001/QD-BTC

Decision no. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001 on the promulgation and announcement of four (4) accounting standards of vietnam (phase 1)

Nội dung toàn văn Decision no. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001 on the promulgation and announcement of four (4) accounting standards of vietnam (phase 1)


THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE
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SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM
Independence - Freedom - Happiness
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No: 149/2001/QD-BTC

Hanoi, December 31, 2001

 

DECISION

ON THE PROMULGATION AND ANNOUNCEMENT OF FOUR (4) ACCOUNTING STANDARDS OF VIETNAM (PHASE 1)

THE MINISTER OF FINANCE

Pursuant to the Accounting and Statistics Ordinance promulgated by Order No. 06-LCT/HDNN of May 20, 1988 of the State Council and the Statute of the State Accounting Organization issued together with Decree No. 25/HDBT of March 18, 1989 of the Council of Ministers (now the Government);
Pursuant to the Government
s Decree No. 15/CP of March 2, 1993 on the tasks, powers and State management responsibilities of the ministries and ministerial-level agencies;
Pursuant to the Government
s Decree No. 178/CP of October 28, 1994 on the tasks, powers and organizational structure of the Ministry of Finance;
In order to satisfy the requirements of renewing the economic and financial management regimes, raise the quality of accounting information provided in the national economy, and supervise and control the quality of the accounting work;
At the proposal of the director of the Department of Accounting Regime and the director of the Office of the Ministry of Finance,

DECIDES:

Article 1.- To promulgate four (4) Vietnamese accounting standards (phase 1) with the following codes and names:

1. Standard No. 02 - Inventories

2. Standard No. 03 - Tangible fixed assets;

3. Standard No. 04 - Intangible fixed assets;

4. Standard No. 14 - Turnover and other incomes

Article 2.- The four (4) Vietnamese accounting standards issued together with this Decision shall apply to all enterprises of all branches and economic sectors across the country.

Article 3.- This Decision takes implementation effect from January 1, 2002. The specific accounting regimes must be revised and supplemented to comply with the four accounting standards issued together with this Decision.

Article 4.- The director of the Department of Accounting Regimes, the director of the Office of the Ministry and the heads of the concerned units of and attached to the Ministry of Finance shall have to guide, inspect and implement this Decision.

 

 

MINISTER OF FINANCE




Nguyen Sinh Hung

 

THE SYSTEM OF VIETNAMESE ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
Standard No. 2

INVENTORIES
(Issued and publicized together with Decision No. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001 of the Minister of Finance)

GENERAL PROVISIONS

01. This standard aims to prescribe and guide the principles and method of accounting the inventories, including: determination of the value of inventories and accounting it as expense; the marking-down of inventories to suit the net realizable value and the method of calculating the value of inventories to serve as basis for recording accounting books and making financial statements.

02. This standard shall apply to accounting inventories on the original price principle, except when other prescribed accounting standards permit the application of other accounting methods to inventories.

03. For the purposes of this standard, the terms used herein are understood as follows:

Inventories: are assets which are:

a/ held for sale in the normal production and business period;

b/ in the on-going process of production and business;

c/ raw materials, materials, tools and instruments for use in the process of production and business or provision of services.

Inventories consist of:

- Goods purchased for sale: goods in stock, purchased goods being transported en route, goods sent for sale, goods sent for processing;

- Finished products in stock and finished products sent for sale;

- Unfinished products: uncompleted products and completed products not yet going through the procedures for being put into stores of finished products;

- Raw materials, materials, tools and instruments in stock, sent for processing, and already purchased but being transported en route;

- Costs of unfinished services.

Net realizable value means the estimated selling price of inventories in a normal production and business period minus (-) the estimated cost for completing the products and the estimated cost needed for their consumption.

Current price means a sum of money payable for the purchase of a similar kind of inventory on the date the accounting balance sheet is made.

CONTENTS OF THE STANDARD
DETERMINATION OF THE VALUE OF INVENTORIES

04. Inventories are valued according to their original prices. Where the net realizable value is lower than the original price, they must be valued according to the net realizable value.

Original prices of inventories

05. The original price of inventories consists of the purchasing cost, processing cost and other directly-related costs incurred for having the inventories stored in the present place and conditions.

Purchasing cost

06. The purchasing cost of inventories consists of the buying price, non-refundable taxes, transportation cost, loading and unloading cost, preservation cost incurred in the buying process and other costs directly related to the purchase of the inventories. Trade discounts and reductions in the prices of purchased goods due to their wrong specifications and/or inferior quality, shall be deducted from the purchasing cost.

Processing cost

07. The processing costs of inventories consist of those directly related to the manufactured products, such as cost of direct labor, fixed and variable general production costs incurred in the process of turning raw materials and materials into finished products.

Fixed general production costs means indirect production costs, which are often invariable regardless of the volume of manufactured products, such as depreciation cost, maintenance cost of machinery, equipment, workshops and administrative management cost at production workshops.

Variable general production costs means indirect production costs, which often change directly or almost directly according to the volume of manufactured products, such as costs of indirect raw materials and materials, cost of indirect labor.

08. Fixed general production costs shall be allocated into the processing cost of each product unit on the basis of the normal production capacity of machinery. Normal capacity is the average quantity of products turned out under normal production conditions.

- Where the quantity of actually-manufactured products is higher than the normal capacity, the fixed general production costs shall be allocated to each product unit according to actually incurred costs.

- Where the quantity of actually-manufactured products is lower than the normal capacity, the fixed general production costs shall be allocated into the processing cost of each product unit only according to the normal capacity. The unallocated amount of general production costs shall be recognized as production and business expense in the period.

The variable general production costs shall be entirely allocated into the processing cost of each product unit according to the actually incurred costs.

09. Where various kinds of products are manufactured in a single production process in the same duration of time and the processing cost of each kind of product is not separately expressed, the processing cost shall be allocated to those kinds of products according to appropriate and consistent norms in all accounting periods.

Where by-products are turned out, their value shall be calculated according to the net realizable value and subtracted from the processing cost already calculated for the principal products.

Other directly-related costs

10. Other directly-related costs shall be incorporated into the original prices of inventories, including costs other than the purchasing cost and processing cost of inventories. For example, the original price of finished products may consist of the product-designing cost for a particular order.

Costs not permitted to be incorporated in the original price of inventories

11. Costs not permitted to be incorporated into the original price of inventories, are:

a/ Costs of raw materials, materials, labor and other production and business costs incurred at a level higher than normal;

b/ Costs of inventories preservation minus the inventories preservation cost needed for subsequent production processes and the preservation cost prescribed in paragraph 06;

c/ Sale cost;

d/ Enterprise management costs.

Service provision cost

12. Service provision cost consists of personnel costs and other costs directly related to the service provision, such as supervision cost and related general costs.

Personnel costs and other costs related to goods sale and enterprise management shall not be included in the service provision cost.

METHOD OF CALCULATING THE VALUE OF INVENTORIES

13. The value of inventories shall be calculated according to one of the following methods:

a/ Specific identification method;

b/ Weighted average method;

c/ First-in, First-out method;

d/ Last-in, First-out method.

14. The specific identification method shall apply to enterprises having a few goods items or stable and identifiable goods items.

15. By the weighted average method, the value of each kind of inventories shall be calculated according to the average value of each similar kind of goods at the beginning of the period and the value of each kind of inventories purchased or manufactured in the period. The average value may be computed either according to periods or the time when a goods lot is warehoused, depending on the enterprises situation.

16. The First-in, First-out method shall apply upon the assumption that the first inventories purchased or manufactured is the first inventories delivered, and the inventories left at the end of the period are those purchased or produced at a time close to the end of the period. By this method, the value of the delivered goods shall be computed according to the price of the lot of goods warehoused at the beginning of the period or at a time shortly after the beginning of the period, the value of the inventories shall be computed according to the price of the goods warehoused at the end of the period or at a time shortly before the end of the period.

17. The Last-in First-out method shall apply upon the assumption that the most recently purchased or manufactured inventories are delivered first, and the inventories left at the end of the period are those which are purchased or produced earlier. By this method, the value of the delivered goods shall be computed according to the price of the lot of goods warehoused most recently or shortly earlier; the value of the inventories shall be computed according to the price of the goods warehoused at the beginning of the period or shortly after the beginning of the period, which still remain in stock.

NET REALIZABLE VALUE AND SETTING UP OF THE INVENTORY PRICE DECREASE RESERVE

18. The value of inventories cannot be fully recovered when they become damaged, outmoded, their selling prices fall or the finishing and/or sale costs rise. The marking-down of inventories to the level equal to the net realizable value is compliant with the principle that assets must not be shown at a value higher than the realized value estimated from their sale or use.

19. At the end of the accounting period of the year, when the net realizable value of inventories is lower than their original price, the reserve for inventory price decrease must be set up. The amount of the to be-set up inventory price decrease reserve is the difference between the original price of inventories and their net realizable value. The inventory price decrease reserve shall be set up for each kind of inventories. For services incompletely provided, the inventory price decrease reserve shall be set up for each type of service with different charges.

20. The estimation of the net realizable value of inventories must be based on reliable evidences gathered at the time of estimation. Such estimation must take into account price fluctuations or costs directly related to events occurring after the ending day of the fiscal year, which have been anticipated through conditions existing at the time of estimation.

21. When estimating the net realizable value, the purpose of the storage of inventories must be taken into account. For example, the net realizable value of the inventories reserved to ensure the performance of uncancellable sale or service provision contracts must be based on the values inscribed in such contracts. If the volume of inventories is bigger than that of goods needed for a contract, the net realizable value of the difference between these two volumes shall be appraised on the basis of the estimated selling price.

22. Raw materials, materials, tools and instruments reserved for use in the manufacture of products must not be valued lower than their original price if the products which have been manufactured with their contributions are to be sold at prices equal to or higher than their production costs. Where there appear decreases in the prices of raw materials, materials, tools and/or instruments but the production costs of products are higher than their net realizable value, the raw materials, materials, tools and instruments left in stock may have their value lowered to be equal to their net realizable value.

23. At the end of the accounting period of the subsequent year, a new appraisal of the net realizable value of inventories by the end of such year must be conducted. Where at the end of the accounting period of the current year, if the to be-set up reserve for inventory price decrease is lower than the inventory price decrease reserve already set up at the end of the accounting period of the previous year, the difference thereof must be added thereto (under the provisions in paragraph 24) in order to ensure that the value of inventories shown on financial statements is computed according to the original price (if the original price is lower than the net realizable value) or according to the net realizable value (if the original price is higher than the net realizable value).

RECOGNITION OF COSTS

24. When selling inventories, the original price of goods sold shall be recognized as production and business expense in the period in consistence with the recognized turnover related thereto. All the difference between the higher inventory price decrease reserve to be set up at the end of the current years accounting period and the lower inventory price decrease reserve already set up at the end of the previous years accounting period, volumes of damaged and lost inventories, after subtracting the compensations paid by individuals due to their liabilities, and unallocated general production costs, shall be recognized as production and business expense in the period. Where the inventory price decrease reserve to be set up at the end of the current years accounting period is lower than the inventory price decrease reserve already set up at the end of the previous years accounting period, the difference thereof must be added and recorded as decrease in production and business expense.

25. Recognition of the value of goods sold as expense incurred in the period must ensure the expense - turnover matching principle.

26. Where some kinds of inventories are used for manufacture of fixed assets or use like self-manufactured workshops, machinery and/or equipment, the original price of these inventories shall be accounted into the fixed asset value.

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

27. In their financial statements, the enterprises must present:

a/ Accounting policies applied in the appraisal of inventories, including the method of computing the value of inventories;

b/ The original prices of the total inventories and of each kind of inventories classified in a way suitable to the enterprise;

c/ The value of the inventory price decrease reserve;

d/ The value re-included from the inventory price decrease reserve;

e/ Cases or events resulting in the addition to or re-inclusion from the inventory price decrease reserve;

f/ The book value of inventories (the original price minus (-) the inventory price decrease reserve) already mortgaged or pledged for payable debts.

28. Where the enterprises compute the value of inventories by the Last-in, First-out method, their financial statements must show the difference between the value of inventories presented in the accounting balance sheet and:

a/ The period-end value of inventories, which is calculated by the First-in, First-out method (if this value is lower than the period-end value of inventories calculated by the weighted average method as well as the net realizable value); or

And the period-end value of inventories which is calculated by the weighted average method (if this value is lower than the period-end value of inventories calculated by the First-in, Fist-out method as well as the net realizable value); or

And the period-end value of inventories which is calculated according to the net realizable value (if this value is lower than the value of inventories calculated by the First-in, First-out method and the weighted average method); or

b/ The period-end current value of inventories on the date the accounting balance sheet is made (if this value is lower than the net realizable value); or, and the net realizable value (if the period-end value of inventories which is calculated according to the net realizable value is lower than the period-end value of inventories which is calculated according to the current value on the date the accounting balance sheet is made).

29. Presentation of inventories costs in the reports on the production and business results, which are classified functionally.

30. Functional classification of costs means that inventories are presented in the section "Original price of goods sold" in the business result reports, including the original price of goods sold, the inventory price decrease reserve, damaged and lost volumes of inventories after subtracting the compensations paid by individuals due to their liabilities, and unallocated general production costs.

Standard No. 03

TANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS
(Issued and publicized together with Decision No. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001 of the Minister of Finance)

GENERAL PROVISIONS

01. This standard aims to prescribe and guide the accounting principles and methods applicable to tangible fixed assets, including criteria of tangible fixed assets, the time of recognition and determination of initial value, costs incurred after initial recognition, determination of value after initial recognition, depreciation, liquidation of tangible fixed assets and some other regulations serving as basis for recording accounting books and making financial statements.

02. This standard applies to the accounting of tangible fixed assets, except where other accounting standards permit the application of other accounting principles and methods to tangible fixed assets.

03. Where other accounting standards prescribe methods of determining and recognizing the initial value of tangible fixed assets other than the methods defined in this standard, other contents of tangible fixed asset accounting shall still comply with the regulations of this standard.

04. Enterprises must apply this standard even when they are affected by price changes, except otherwise prescribed by State decisions related to the re-appraisal of tangible fixed assets.

05. For the purpose of this standard, the terms used herein are construed as follows:

Tangible fixed assets means assets in physical forms which are possessed by the enterprises for use in production and business activities in conformity with the recognition criteria of tangible fixed assets.

Historical cost means all the costs incurred by the enterprises to acquire tangible fixed assets as of the time of putting such assets into the ready-for-use state.

Depreciation means the systematic allocation of the depreciable value of tangible fixed assets throughout the useful life of such assets.

Depreciable value means the historical cost of tangible fixed assets recorded on financial statements, minus (-) the estimated liquidation value of such assets.

Useful life means the duration in which the tangible fixed assets produce their effect on production and business, calculated by:

a/ The duration the enterprise expects to use the tangible fixed assets, or:

b/ The volume of products, or similar calculating units which the enterprise expects to obtain from the use of assets.

Liquidation value means the value estimated to be obtained at the end of the useful life of the assets, after subtracting the estimated liquidation cost.

Reasonable value means the value of assets, which may be exchanged among knowledgeable parties in the par value exchange.

Residual value means the historical cost of tangible fixed assets after subtracting the accumulated depreciation thereof.

Recoverable value means the value estimated to be obtained in future from the use of the assets, including their liquidation value.

CONTENTS OF THE STANDARD

RECOGNITION OF TANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS

06. Criteria for recognition of tangible fixed assets:

To be recognized as tangible fixed assets, assets must meet simultaneously all the following four (4) recognition criteria:

a/ Future economic benefits will surely be obtained;

b/ Their historical cost has been determined in a reliable way;

c/ Their useful life is estimated at more than one year;

d/ They meet all value criteria according to current regulations.

07. Tangible asset accounting is classified by groups of assets of the same nature and use purposes in the enterprises production and business operations, including:

a/ Houses and architectural objects;

b/ Machinery and equipment;

c/ Means of transport, conveyance equipment;

d/ Managerial equipment and instruments;

e/ Perennial tree garden, animals reared to labor for humans and to yield products.

f/ Other tangible fixed assets.

08. Tangible fixed assets often constitute a key component in the total assets and play an important role in the reflection of the financial situation of enterprises. Therefore, the determination of an asset whether or not to be recognized as tangible fixed asset or a production or business expense in the period shall greatly affect the reporting of the enterprises operation and business results.

09. When determining the first criterion (prescribed in Section a, paragraph 06) of each tangible fixed asset, the enterprises must determine the degree of certainty of the acquisition of future economic benefits, on the basis of evidences available at the time of initial recognition, and must bear all related risks.

Though being unable to directly yield economic benefits like other tangible fixed assets, those assets used for the purposes of ensuring production and business safety or protecting the environment are necessary for enterprises to achieve more economic benefits from other assets. However, only if their historical cost and that of related assets do not exceed the total value recoverable from them and other related assets shall these assets be recognized as tangible fixed assets. For example, a chemical plant may have to install equipment and carry out new chemical-storing and-preserving processes in order to comply with the environmental protection requirements in the production and storage of toxic chemicals. Any related installed accompanying fixed assets shall only be accounted as tangible fixed assets if without them the enterprises would not be able to operate and sell their chemical products.

10. The second criterion (prescribed in Section b, paragraph 06) for recognizing tangible fixed assets is often satisfied since the historical cost of the fixed assets has been already determined through procurement, exchange, or self-construction.

11. When determining components of tangible fixed assets, the enterprises must apply the criteria of tangible fixed asset on a case-by-case basis. The enterprises may consolidate secondary, separate parts, such as molds, tools, swages, and apply the criteria of tangible fixed asset to such aggregate value. Accessories and auxiliary equipment are often seen as movables and thereby accounted into use costs. Major accessories and maintenance equipment shall be determined as tangible fixed assets when the enterprises estimate that their useful life would last for over one year. If they are only used in association with tangible fixed assets irregularly, they shall be accounted as separate tangible fixed assets and depreciated over a period shorter than the useful life of related tangible fixed assets.

12. In each specific case, the total cost of assets may be allocated to their components and separately accounted for each component. This case shall apply when each component of an asset has a different useful life, or contributes to creating for the enterprise economic benefits which are assessed according to different prescribed criteria so it may use different depreciation rates and methods. For example, an aircraft body and engine should be accounted as two separate tangible fixed assets with different depreciation rates if they have different useful lives.

DETERMINATION OF INITIAL VALUE

13. Tangible fixed assets must have their initial value determined according to their historical cost

DETERMINATION OF HISTORICAL COST OF TANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS ON A CASE-BY-CASE BASIS

Procured tangible fixed assets

14. The historical cost of a procured tangible fixed asset consists of the buying price (minus (-) trade discounts and price reductions), taxes (excluding reimbursed tax amounts) and expenses directly related to the putting of the assets into the ready-for-use state, such as ground preparation expense; initial transportation, loading and unloading expense; installation and trial operation expense (minus (-) amounts recovered from products and wastes turned out from trial operation); expert cost and other directly-related expenses.

For tangible fixed assets formed from construction investment by contractual mode, their historical costs are the settled costs of the invested construction projects, other directly-related expenses and registration fee (if any).

15. Where procured tangible fixed assets are houses, architectural objects associated with the land use right, the land use right value must be separately determined and recognized as intangible fixed asset.

16. Where procured tangible fixed assets are paid by deferred payment mode, their historical cost shall be shown at the buying price promptly paid at the purchase time. The difference between the payable total amount and the promptly-paid buying price shall be accounted as expense in the payment period, except where such difference is included into the historical cost of tangible fixed assets (capitalization) according to the regulations of the accounting standard "Borrowing expenses."

17. Incurred costs, such as administrative management cost, general production costs, trial operation cost and other costs, if not directly related to the procurement and the putting of fixed assets into the ready-for-use state, shall not be included into the historical cost of tangible fixed assets. Initial losses caused by the machinerys failure to operate as planned shall be accounted into production and business expenses in the period.

Self-constructed or self-made tangible fixed assets

18. The historical cost of a self-constructed or self-made tangible fixed asset is its actual cost plus (+) the installation and trial operation cost. Where the enterprises turn the products made by themselves into fixed assets, the historical costs shall be the production costs of such products plus (+) the expenses directly related to the putting of the fixed assets into the ready-for-use state. In these cases, all internal profits must not be included in the historical cost of these assets. Unreasonable expenses, such as wasted materials and supplies, labor or other costs in excess of the normal levels arising in the self-construction or self-generating process must not be included in the historical cost of tangible fixed assets.

Financial-leasing tangible fixed assets

19. Where tangible fixed assets are leased in the form of financial lease, their historical cost shall be determined according to the regulations of the accounting standard "Asset lease."

Tangible fixed assets purchased in the exchange form

20. The historical cost of a tangible fixed asset purchased in the form of exchange for a dissimilar tangible fixed asset or other assets shall be determined according to the reasonable value of the received tangible fixed assets, or that of the exchanged ones, after adjusting the cash amounts or cash equivalents which are additionally paid or received.

21. The historical cost of a tangible fixed asset purchased in the form of exchange for similar one, or possibly formed through its sale in exchange for the right to own similar ones (similar assets are those with similar utilities, in the same business field and of equivalent value). In both cases no profit or loss is recognized in the exchange process. The historical cost of the received fixed asset shall be the residual value of the exchanged one. For example, the exchange of tangible fixed assets is similar to exchange of machinery, equipment, means of transport, service establishments or other tangible fixed assets.

Tangible fixed assets augmented from other sources

22. The historical cost of a tangible fixed asset which is donated or presented shall be initially recognized according to the initial reasonable value. Where it is not recognized according to the initial reasonable value, the enterprises may recognize it according to the nominal value plus (+) the expenses directly related to the putting of the assets into the ready-for-use state.

COSTS INCURRED AFTER INITIAL RECOGNITION

23. The costs incurred after the initial recognition of tangible fixed assets shall be recorded as increase in their historical cost if these costs are certain to augment future economic benefits obtained from the use of these assets. Those incurred costs which fail to meet this requirement must be recognized as production and business expenses in the period.

24. The costs incurred after the initial recognition of tangible fixed assets shall be recorded as increase in their historical cost if these costs have practically improved the current conditions of the assets as compared to their original standard conditions, such as:

a/ Replacing parts of the tangible fixed assets, thereby prolonging their useful life or increasing their use capacity;

b/ Renovating parts of the tangible fixed assets, thereby considerably improving the quality of manufactured products;

c/ Applying new technological production processes, thereby reducing the operational costs of the assets.

25. The repair and maintenance costs of tangible fixed assets for the purpose of restoring or sustaining their capability to bring about economic benefits as in their original operating conditions shall be included into production and business expenses in the period.

26. The accounting of the costs incurred after the initial recognition of tangible fixed assets must be based on each particular case and the recoverability of these costs. When the residual value of the tangible fixed assets has already been composed of reductions in economic benefits, those costs incurred afterwards to restore economic benefits from these fixed assets shall be included in the historical cost of the fixed assets if their residual value does not exceed their recoverable value. Where the buying price of a tangible fixed asset has already covered the enterprises obligation to incur those costs for putting the assets into the ready-for-use state, the capitalization of the costs incurred afterwards must be also based on the recoverability of these costs. For example, an enterprise buys a house which needs some repair before it can be used. The house repair cost shall be included in the historical cost of the asset if such cost is recoverable from the future use of the house.

27. Where some parts of tangible fixed assets need to be replaced on a regular basis, they shall be accounted as independent fixed assets if they satisfy all the four (4) criteria of a tangible fixed asset. For example, air-conditioners in a house may be replaced many times throughout the useful life of the house. The costs incurred in the replacement or restoration of these air-conditioners shall be accounted as an independent asset and the value of the replaced air-conditioners shall be recorded as a decrease.

DETERMINATION OF VALUE AFTER INITIAL RECOGNITION

28. After initial recognition, during their use process, tangible fixed assets shall be determined according to their historical costs, accumulated depreciation and residual values. Where they are re-appraised according to the States regulations, their historical cost, accumulated depreciation and residual value must be adjusted according to the re-appraisal results. The difference resulting from the re-valuation of tangible fixed assets shall be handled and accounted according to the States regulations

DEPRECIATION

29. The depreciable value of tangible fixed assets shall be allocated systematically during their useful life. The depreciation method must be suited to the economic benefits yielded by the assets to the enterprises. The depreciated amount of each period shall be accounted into the production and business expenses in the period, unless they are included in the value of other assets, such as depreciation of tangible fixed assets used for activities in the development stage is a cost component of the historical cost of intangible fixed assets (according to the regulations of the standard intangible fixed assets), or the depreciation cost of tangible fixed assets used in the process of self-constructing or self-making other assets.

30. Economic benefits yielded by tangible fixed assets shall be gradually exploited by the enterprises through the use of these assets. Nevertheless, other factors, like technical backwardness, wear-and-tear of these fixed assets due to their non-use, often cause reductions in the economic benefits which the enterprises expect these assets would bring about. Therefore, when determining the useful life of tangible fixed assets, the following factors must be taken into account:

a/ The extent of use of such asset, estimated by the enterprise. The extent of use is assessed according to the estimated capacity or output;

b/ The extent of wear-and-tear, depending on the related elements in the assets use process, such as the number of working shifts, the enterprises repair and maintenance of the asset as well as its upkeep when not in operation;

c/ Invisible wear-and-tear arising from the replacement or renovation of the technological chain or changes in the market demand for the products or service turned out by the asset;

d/ Legal constraints in the asset use, such as the date of expiry of the contract of financial-leasing fixed assets.

31. The useful life of tangible fixed assets shall be determined by the enterprises mainly on the expected use extent of the assets. However, due to the asset management policy of the enterprises, the estimated useful life of fixed assets may be shorter than their actual useful life. Therefore, the estimation of the useful life of a tangible fixed asset must be also based on the enterprises experiences on assets of the same type.

32. Three methods of depreciation of tangible fixed assets are:

- Straight-line depreciation method;

- Declining-balance depreciation method; and

- Units-of-output depreciation method.

By the straight-line depreciation method, the annual depreciation amount is kept unchanged throughout the useful life of assets. By the declining-balance depreciation method, the annual depreciation amount gradually declines throughout the useful life of assets. The units-of-output depreciation method is based on the estimated total quantity of product units the assets may turn out. The depreciation method applied by the enterprises to each tangible fixed asset must be implemented consistently, except where appear changes in the mode of its use.

The enterprises must not continue depreciating tangible fixed assets which have been entirely depreciated but still used for production and business operations.

RECONSIDERATION OF USEFUL LIFE

33. The useful life of tangible fixed assets must be reconsidered periodically, usually at the end of the fiscal year. If there is any considerable change in the estimation of the useful life of assets, the depreciation rate must be adjusted.

34. In the process of using fixed assets, once it has been determined with certainty that the useful life is no longer suitable, it must be adjusted together with the depreciation rate for the current year and subsequent years, which shall be expounded in the financial statements. For example: The useful life may be extended as a result of the improvement of the assets conditions as compared with their initial standard conditions; technical modifications or changes in the demands for products produced by a machine may also shorten the useful life of the assets.

35. The tangible fixed asset repair and maintenance regime may help prolong the actual useful life or increase the estimated liquidation value of assets but the enterprises must not change the depreciation rate of these assets.

RECONSIDERATION OF THE DEPRECIATION METHOD

36. The method of depreciation of tangible fixed assets must be reconsidered periodically, usually at the end of the fiscal year; if there is any change in the way of using the assets, which brings about benefits for the enterprises, the depreciation method and rate may be changed for the current year and subsequent years.

SALE AND LIQUIDATION OF TANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS

37. Tangible fixed assets which are liquidated or sold shall be recorded as a decrease.

38. Profits or losses arising from liquidation or sale of tangible fixed assets shall be determined as differences between incomes and liquidation or sale costs plus (+) the residual value of the tangible fixed assets. These profits or losses shall be recognized as an income or an expense on the reports on the business results in the period.

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

39. In their financial statements, the enterprises must present the following information on each type of tangible fixed asset:

a/ Method of determination of the historical cost of the tangible fixed asset;

b/ Method of depreciation, the useful life or depreciation rate;

c/ The historical cost, accumulated depreciation and residual value at the beginning of the year and at the end of the period;

d/ A written explanation of the financial statement (the section Tangible Fixed Assets) must cover the following information:

- The historical cost of the tangible fixed asset, any increase and/or decrease in the period;

- The depreciated amount in the period, any increase, decrease and the accumulated amount by the end of the period;

- The residual value of the tangible fixed assets mortgaged or pledged for loans;

- Investment costs of unfinished capital constructions;

- Commitments to the future purchase or sale of tangible fixed assets of big value;

- The residual value of tangible fixed assets temporarily not in use;

- The historical cost of fully-depreciated tangible fixed assets which are still in use;

- The residual value of tangible fixed assets awaiting liquidation;

- Other changes in tangible fixed assets.

40. The determination of the depreciation method and the estimation of the useful life of tangible fixed assets bear a purely presumptive nature. Therefore, the presentation of the applied depreciation methods and the estimated useful life of tangible fixed assets permits the users of financial statements to examine the correctness of the policies set out by the enterprise management and have basis for comparison with other enterprises.

41. The enterprises must present the nature and impact of the changes in accounting estimation which bear a crucial influence in the current accounting period or subsequent periods. The information must be presented when there arise changes in the accounting estimates related to the already liquidated or to be-liquidated tangible fixed assets, their useful life and depreciation methods.

Standard No. 04

INTANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS
(Issued and publicized together with Decision No. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001 of the Minister of Finance)

GENERAL PROVISIONS

01. This standard aims to prescribe and guide the principles and methods of accounting intangible fixed assets, including: criteria of intangible fixed assets, time of recognition and determination of the initial value, costs incurred after initial recognition, determination of the value after initial recognition, depreciation, liquidation of intangible fixed assets and some other regulations serving as basis for recording accounting books and making financial statements.

02. This standard applies to the accounting of intangible fixed assets, except where other standards permit the application of other accounting principles and methods to intangible fixed assets.

03. A number of intangible fixed assets may be contained within or on physical objects like compact discs (in cases where computer software is recorded in compact discs), legal documents (in cases of licenses or invention patents). In order to determine whether or not an asset containing both intangible and tangible elements is accounted according to the regulations of the tangible fixed asset standard or intangible fixed asset standard, the enterprises must base themselves on the determination of which elements being important. For example, if computer software is an integral part of the hardware of a computer, without it the computer cannot operate, such software is a part of the computer and thus it is considered a part of tangible fixed asset. In cases where software is a part detachable from the related hardware, it is an intangible fixed asset.

04. This standard prescribes the expenses related to the advertisement, personnel training, enterprise establishment, research and development. Research and development activities oriented at the knowledge development may create an asset in a physical form (i.e. models) but the physical element only plays a secondary role as compared with the intangible component being knowledge embedded in such asset.

05. Once the financial-leasing intangible fixed assets have been initially recognized, the lessees must account them in the finance-leasing contracts according to this standard. The rights under licensing contracts to films, video programs, plays, manuscripts, patents and copyright shall fall within the scope of this standard.

06. For the purpose of this standard, the terms used herein are construed as follows:

Asset is a resource which is:

a/ controllable by the enterprise; and

b/ expected to yield future economic benefits for the enterprise.

Intangible fixed assets mean assets which have no physical form but the value of which can be determined and which are held and used by the enterprises in their production, business, service provision or leased to other subjects in conformity with the recognition criteria of intangible fixed assets.

Research means a planned initial survey activity carried out to obtain new scientific or technical understanding and knowledge.

Development means an activity of applying research results or scientific knowledge to a plan or design so as to make products of a new kind or to substantially renovate materials, tools, products, processes, systems or new services before their commercial production or use.

Historical cost means all costs incurred by the enterprises to acquire intangible fixed assets as of the time of putting these assets into use as expected.

Depreciation means the systematic allocation of the depreciable value of intangible asset throughout their useful life.

Depreciable value means the historical cost of an intangible asset recorded in the financial statement minus (-) the estimated liquidation value of the asset.

Useful life means the duration in which intangible fixed assets promote their effects on production and business, calculated by:

a/ The time for which the enterprise expects to use the intangible asset; or

b/ The quantity of products, or similar calculating units which the enterprise expects to obtain from the use of the assets.

Liquidation value means the value estimated to be acquired upon the expiry of the useful life of an asset, after subtracting (-) the estimated liquidation cost.

Residual value means the historical value of an intangible fixed asset after subtracting (-) the accumulated depreciation of the asset.

Reasonable value means the value of assets which may be exchanged between the knowledgeable parties in the par value exchange.

Operating market means a market which meets simultaneously all the following three (3) conditions:

a/ Products sold on the market are homogenous;

b/ Purchaser and seller may find each other at any time;

c/ Prices are made public.

INTANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS

07. The enterprises often make investment in order to acquire intangible resources such as the right to use land for a definite term, computer software, patent, copyright, aquatic resource exploitation permit, export quota, import quota, right concession permit, business relations with customers or suppliers, customers loyalty, market shares, the marketing right

08. In order to determine whether or not intangible resources specified in paragraph 07 meet the definition of an intangible fixed asset, the following factors shall be considered: Identifiability, resource controllability and certainty of future economic benefits. If an intangible resource fails to satisfy the intangible fixed asset definition, the costs incurred in the formation of such intangible resource must be recognized as production and business expenses in the period or as pre-paid expenses. Particularly for those intangible resources the enterprises have acquired through enterprise merger of re-purchase character, they shall be recognized as goodwill on the date of arising of the purchase operation (under the regulations in paragraph 46).

Identifiability

09. Intangible fixed assets must be separately identifiable so that they can be clearly distinguished from goodwill. Goodwill arising from the enterprise merger of re-purchase character is shown with a payment made by the asset purchaser in order so as to possibly obtain future economic benefits.

10. An intangible fixed asset is considered identifiable when the enterprises may lease, sell or exchange it or acquire concrete future economic benefits therefrom. Those assets which can only generate future economic benefits when combined with other assets shall be still seen as separately identifiable if the enterprises can determine with certainty future economic benefits to be brought about by such assets.

Controllability

11. An enterprise is in control of an asset if it has the right to acquire future economic benefits yielded by such asset and, at the same time, is able to limit other subjects access to these benefits. The enterprises controllability of future economic benefits from intangible fixed assets, often derives from legal rights.

12. Market knowledge and expertise may bring about future economic benefits. The enterprise may control these benefits if they have legal right, for example: Copyright, aquatic resource exploitation permit.

13. If an enterprise has a contingent of skilled employees and through training, it may ascertain that improvement of their employees knowledge would bring about future economic benefits, but it is unable to control these economic benefits, therefore the enterprise cannot recognize such as an intangible fixed asset. Leadership talent and professional techniques shall not be recognized as intangible fixed assets except where these assets are secured with legal rights to use them and acquire future economic benefits and, at the same time, meet all the requirements of the intangible fixed asset definition and recognition criteria.

14. For enterprises which have customers name lists or market shares, if they have neither legal rights nor other measures to protect or control economic benefits from the relations with customers and their loyalty, they must not recognize these as intangible fixed assets.

Future economic benefits

15. Future economic benefits yielded by intangible fixed assets for the enterprises may include: Turnover increase, saved costs, or other benefits originating from the use of intangible fixed assets.

CONTENTS OF THE STANDARD

RECOGNITION AND DETERMINATION OF INITIAL VALUE

16. To be recognized as intangible fixed asset, an intangible asset must simultaneously satisfy:

- The definition of an intangible fixed asset; and

- Four (4) recognition criteria below:

+ The certainty to acquire future economic benefits brought about by the asset;

+ The assets historical cost must be determined in a reliable way;

+ The useful life is estimated to last for over one year;

+ All value criteria prescribed by current regulations are met.

17. The enterprises must determine the degree of certainty to acquire future economic benefits through using reasonable and grounded assumptions on the economic conditions which will exist throughout the useful life of the assets.

18. Intangible fixed assets must have their initial value determined according to their historical cost.

DETERMINATION OF HISTORICAL COST OF INTANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS IN EACH CASE

Purchase of separate intangible fixed assets

19. The historical cost of a separately-purchased intangible fixed asset consists of the buying price (minus (-) trade discounts or price reductions), taxes (excluding reimbursed tax amounts) and expenses directly related to the putting of the asset into use as planned.

20. Where the land use right is purchased together with houses and architectural objects affixed on the land, its value must be separately determined and recognized as intangible fixed asset.

21. Where a procured intangible asset is paid by deferred payment mode, its historical cost shall be shown at the purchasing price which should have been promptly paid at the time of purchase. The difference between the total amount payable and the promptly-paid purchase price shall be accounted into the production and business expense according to the payment period, except where such difference is included in the historical cost of the intangible asset (capitalization) under the regulations of the accounting standard "Costs of borrowing."

22. If an intangible fixed asset is formed from the exchange involving payment accompanied with vouchers related to the capital ownership of the establishment, its historical cost is the reasonable value of vouchers issued in relation to capital ownership.

Purchase of intangible fixed assets through enterprise merger

23. The historical cost of an intangible fixed asset formed from the process of enterprise merger of re-purchase character is the reasonable value of such asset on the date of purchase (the date of enterprise merger).

24. The enterprises must determine the historical cost of intangible fixed assets in a reliable way for separate recognition of these assets.

The reasonable value may be:

- The price posted up on the operating market;

- The price of the operation of trading in similar intangible fixed assets.

25. If the operating market for assets does not exist, the historical costs of intangible fixed assets shall be equal to the amounts the enterprises should have paid on the date of purchase of the fixed assets under the condition that such operation is carried out objectively on the basis of available reliable information. In this case, the enterprises should consider carefully the results of these operations in correlation with similar assets.

26. Upon enterprise merger, intangible fixed assets shall be recognized as follows:

a/ The purchaser shall recognize assets as intangible fixed assets if they meet the intangible fixed asset definition and recognition criteria specified in paragraphs 16 and 17, even if such intangible fixed assets were not recognized in the financial statements of the asset seller;

b/ If an intangible asset is purchased through enterprise merger of re-purchase character but its historical cost cannot be determined reliably, the asset shall not be recognized as a separate intangible fixed asset but accounted as goodwill (under the regulations in paragraph 46).

27. Where no operating market exists for intangible fixed assets purchased through enterprise merger of re-purchase character, the historical cost of intangible fixed assets shall be the value at which they do not create negative-value goodwill which arises on the date of enterprise merger.

Intangible fixed assets being the right to use land for a definite term

28. The historical cost of an intangible fixed asset is the right to use land for a definite term when the land is allocated or the payment made when receiving the land use right lawfully transferred from other persons, or the land use right value contributed to joint-venture capital.

29. Where the land use right is transferred together with the purchase of houses and/or architectural objects on the land, the value of houses and/or architectural objects must be determined separately and recognized as tangible fixed assets.

Intangible fixed assets allocated by the state or donated or presented

30. The historical cost of an intangible fixed asset which is allocated by the State, donated or presented, is determined according to the initial reasonable value plus (+) the expenses directly related to the putting of the assets into use as planned.

Intangible fixed assets purchased in the form of exchange

31. The historical cost of an intangible fixed asset purchased in the form of exchange for a dissimilar intangible or another asset is determined according to the reasonable value of the received intangible fixed asset or equal to the reasonable value of the exchanged asset, after adjusting the cash amounts or cash equivalents additionally received or paid.

32. The historical cost of an intangible fixed asset purchased in the form of exchange for a similar intangible fixed one, or possibly formed through its sale in exchange for the right to own a similar assets (similar asset are those with similar utilities, in the same business field and of equivalent value). In both cases, no profit or loss is recognized in the exchange process. The historical cost of the received intangible fixed asset is equal to the residual value of the exchanged intangible fixed asset.

Goodwill created from within the enterprises

33. Goodwill created from within the enterprises shall not be recognized as assets.

34. Costs incurred to generate future economic benefits but not form intangible fixed assets because they fail to satisfy the definition and recognition criteria in this standard but to create goodwill within the enterprises. The goodwill created within the enterprises shall not be recognized as assets since they are not identifiable resources, nor appraisable in a reliable way nor controllable by the enterprises.

35. The difference between the market value of an enterprise and the value of its net asset value recorded on the financial statement, which is determined at a certain point of time, shall not be recognized as an intangible fixed asset controlled by the enterprise.

Intangible fixed assets created from within the enterprises

36. In order to assess whether or not an intangible asset created from within an enterprise on the date of arising of the operation meets the intangible fixed asset definition and recognition criteria, the enterprise must divide the asset-forming process into:

a/ The research stage; and

b/ The development stage.

37. If the enterprise cannot distinguish the research stage from the development stage of an internal intangible asset-creating project, it must account all incurred costs related to such project as expenses so as to determine the business results in the period.

Research stage

38. All costs incurred in the research stage shall not be recognized as intangible fixed assets but as production and business expenses in the period.

39. Examples of activities in the research stage:

a/ Activities of researching into and developing new knowledge, and activities of exploring, evaluating and selecting final options;

b/ The application of research results, or other knowledge;

c/ The exploration of alternative methods for materials, tools, products, processes, services;

d/ Formulas, designs, evaluation and final selection of alternative methods for materials, tools, products, processes, systems, services, new or further improved.

Development stage

40. Intangible assets created in the development stage shall be recognized as intangible fixed assets if they meet all the following seven (7) conditions:

a/ Their technical feasibility assures the finishing and putting of the intangible assets into use as planned or for sale;

b/ The enterprises intend to finish the intangible assets for use or sale;

c/ The enterprises are capable of using or selling the intangible assets;

d/ The intangible assets must generate future economic benefits;

e/ There are adequate technical, financial and other resources for completion of the development stage, sale or use of such intangible assets;

f/ Being capable of determining with certainty all costs in the development stage for creating the intangible assets;

g/ They are estimated to meet all criteria for use duration and value prescribed for intangible fixed assets.

41. Examples of development activities:

a/ Designing, constructing and experimenting prototypes or models before they are put into production or use;

b/ Designing tools, molds, jigs and swages related to new technologies;

c/ Designing, constructing and operating economically infeasible trial workshops for commercial production operations;

d/ Designing, developing and manufacturing on a trial basis substitute materials, tools, products, processes, systems and services, new or improved.

42. Trademarks, distribution right, customers name list and similar items formed from within the enterprises shall not be recognized as intangible fixed assets.

Historical costs of intangible fixed assets created from within the enterprises

43. Intangible fixed assets created from within the enterprises shall be initially appraised according to their historical costs consisting of all costs incurred from the time the intangible assets satisfy the intangible fixed asset definition and recognition criteria prescribed in paragraphs 16, 17 and 40 until they are put into use. The costs incurred before this point of time must be included in production and business expenses in the period.

44. The historical cost of an intangible fixed asset created from within an enterprise consists of all directly related expenses or allocated according to rational and consistent norms at all stages from designing, construction, trial production to preparation for putting the asset into use as planned.

The historical cost of an intangible fixed asset created from within the enterprises consists of:

a/ Costs of raw materials, materials or services already used in the creation of the intangible fixed assets;

b/ Salaries, wages and other expenses related to the hiring of employees personally involved in the creation of such asset;

c/ Other expenses directly related to the creation of the asset, such as expenses for registration of legal rights, depreciation of patent and license used in the creation of such asset;

d/ General production costs allocated into the asset according to rational and consistent norms (for example: allocation of the depreciation of workshops, machinery, equipment, insurance premiums, and rents of workshops and equipment).

45. The following costs must not be included in the historical cost of intangible fixed assets created from within the enterprises:

a/ Sale cost, enterprise management cost and general production costs not directly related to the putting of the assets into use;

b/ Unreasonable expenses such as those for wasted raw materials and materials, labor and other expenses in excess of the normal level;

c/ Cost of training of employees to operate the assets.

RECOGNITION OF COSTS

46. Those costs related to intangible assets must be recognized as production and business expenses in the period or pre-paid expenses, except the following cases:

a/ Costs of creating part of the historical cost of an intangible fixed asset satisfying the intangible fixed asset definition and recognition criteria (prescribed from paragraph 16 to 44).

b/ Intangible assets formed from the process of enterprise merger of re-purchase character, which fail to satisfy the intangible fixed asset definition and recognition criteria, these costs (included in the asset re-purchase expenses) shall form part of the goodwill (including cases where goodwill bear a negative value) on the date of decision of enterprise merger.

47. Those costs incurred to yield future economic benefits for the enterprises but not recognized as intangible fixed assets, shall be recognized as production and business expenses in the period, excluding those costs specified in paragraph 48.

48. Those costs incurred to generate future economic benefits for the enterprises, including enterprise establishment cost, personnel-training cost and advertising cost incurred before the newly-set up enterprises start to operate, costs for the research stage, relocation cost, shall be recognized as production and business expenses in the period or gradually allocated into production and business expenses in the maximum period of three years.

49. Costs related to intangible assets, which have been recognized by the enterprises as costs of determining the business operation results in the previous period, shall not be re-recognized as part of the historical cost of intangible fixed assets.

COST INCURRED AFTER INITIAL RECOGNITION

50. Costs related to intangible fixed assets, which are incurred after initial recognition, must be recognized as production and business expenses in the period; if they meet simultaneously the two following conditions, they shall be included into the historical costs of intangible fixed assets:

a/ These costs can help intangible fixed assets generate more future economic benefits than the original operation evaluation;

b/ These costs are appraised in a certain way and associated with a specific intangible asset.

51. Those costs which are related to intangible fixed assets and incurred after initial recognition shall be recognized as production and business expenses in the period, except when these costs are associated with a specific intangible fixed asset and help increase economic benefits from such asset.

52. Those costs which are incurred after the initial recognition and related to trademarks, distribution right, customers name list and items of similar nature (including those purchased from outside or created from within the enterprise) shall be always recognized as production and business expenses in the period.

DETERMINATION OF VALUE AFTER INITIAL RECOGNITION

53. After initial recognition, in their use process, the intangible fixed assets shall be determined according to their historical cost, accumulated depreciation and residual value.

DEPRECIATION

Depreciation period

54. The depreciable value of an intangible fixed asset must be systematically allocated throughout its estimated reasonable useful life. The depreciation period of an intangible asset shall not exceed 20 years. Depreciation shall start from the time the intangible fixed asset is put into use.

55. When determining the useful life of an intangible fixed asset as basis for calculating depreciation, the following factors must be taken into account:

a/ The estimated usage of the asset;

b/ The life circle of products and general information on the estimates related to the useful life of identical types of fixed assets which are used under similar conditions.

c/ Technical or technological obsoleteness;

d/ Stability of the sector using this asset and the change in the market demand for products or the provision of services brought about by such asset;

e/ Projected activities of existing or potential competitors;

f/ Necessary maintenance cost;

g/ The asset control period, legal constraints and other constraints in the process of using the asset;

h/ The dependence of the useful life of the intangible fixed asset on other assets in the enterprise.

56. For computer software and other intangible fixed assets which may become technically obsolete rapidly, their useful life is often shorter.

57. In some cases, the useful life of intangible fixed assets may exceed 20 years upon reliable evidences but must be specified. In this case, the enterprises must:

a/ Depreciate the intangible fixed assets according to their most accurately-estimated useful life;

b/ Justify the reasons for the estimation of the assets useful life in the financial statements.

58. If the control of future economic benefits from intangible fixed assets is made possible by virtue of legal rights granted within a given period, the useful life of the intangible fixed assets shall not exceed the effective time of the legal rights, except when such rights are extended.

59. Economic and legal factors affecting the useful life of intangible fixed assets include: (1) Economic factors decisive to the period in which future economic benefits are obtained; (2) Legal factors restricting the period during which the enterprise controls these economic benefits. The useful life is a period shorter than the above-said periods.

Depreciation methods

60. The depreciation methods applicable to intangible fixed assets must reflect the mode of recovering economic benefits from such intangible fixed assets of the enterprises. The depreciation method used for each intangible fixed asset shall apply uniformly in many periods and may be changed when there appears a significant change in the enterprises mode of recovering economic benefits. The depreciation cost for each period must be recognized as a production and business expense, unless it is included in the value of other assets.

61. There are three (3) depreciation methods for intangible fixed assets, including:

Straight-line depreciation method;

Declining-balance depreciation method;

Units-of-output depreciation method.

- By to the straight-line depreciation method, the annual depreciated amount is kept unchanged throughout the intangible fixed assets useful life.

- According to the declining-balance method, the annual depreciated amount gradually declines throughout the assets useful life.

- The units-of-output method is based on the estimated total quantity of products the asset will create.

Liquidation value

62. An intangible fixed asset has a liquidation value when:

a/ There is a third party agreeing to re-purchase the asset at the end of its useful life; or

b/ There is an operating market at the end of the assets useful life and the liquidation value may be identified through the market price.

When none of the above-mentioned two conditions exists, the liquidation value of an intangible fixed asset is determined as zero (0).

63. The depreciable value is determined as equal to the historical cost minus (-) the estimated liquidation value of the asset.

64. The liquidation value is estimated when an intangible fixed asset is created and put into use on the basis of the prevailing selling price at the end of the useful life of a similar asset which has been operating under similar conditions. The estimated liquidation value shall not rise when there appear changes in price or value.

Reconsideration of the depreciation period and depreciation method

65. The period and methods of depreciation of intangible fixed assets must be reconsidered at least at the end of every fiscal year. If the estimated useful life of an asset sees a big difference from the previous estimates, the depreciation period must be modified accordingly. The method of depreciation of intangible fixed assets may be changed when there emerges a significant change in the way of estimating the economic benefits recoverable for the enterprises. In this case, the depreciation cost in the current year and subsequent years must be adjusted, which must be justified in the financial statements.

66. Throughout the time of using intangible fixed assets when it is deemed that the estimated useful life of an asset is no longer suitable, the depreciation period must be adjusted. For example, the useful life may prolong as a result of more investment in raising the assets capability as compared with the original operating capability appraisal.

67. Throughout the useful life of intangible fixed assets, the way of estimating future economic benefits which the enterprises expect to obtain may be changed, and so the method of depreciation need to be changed accordingly. For example, the declining balance depreciation method proves more suitable than the straight-line depreciation method.

SALE AND LIQUIDATION OF INTANGIBLE FIXED ASSETS

68. Intangible fixed assets shall be recorded as decrease when they are liquidated, sold or deemed to generate no economic benefits in subsequent use.

69. Profits or losses arising from the liquidation or sale of intangible fixed assets shall be the difference between incomes and liquidation or sale costs plus (+) the residual value of the intangible assets. Such profits or losses shall be recognized as an income or a cost on the in the business result report in the period.

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

70. In financial statements, the enterprises must present the following information on each type of intangible fixed assets created from within the enterprises and each type of intangible fixed assets formed from other sources:

a/ Method of determining the historical cost of the intangible fixed asset;

b/ Depreciation method; the useful life or depreciation rate;

c/ The historical cost; accumulated depreciation and residual value at the beginning of the year and at the end of the period;

d/ The written explanation of the financial statement (section intangible fixed assets) must cover the following information:

- Increase in the historical cost of intangible fixed assets, of which the value of intangible fixed assets increases from activities in the development stage or enterprise merger;

- Decrease in the historical cost of intangible fixed assets;

- Depreciation in the period, any increase, decrease and accumulated amount at the end of the period;

- Reasons for an intangible fixed asset to be depreciated in over 20 years (when giving these reasons, the enterprises must point out the important factors in the determination of the useful life of the asset).

- The historical cost, accumulated depreciation, residual value and remaining depreciation duration of each intangible fixed asset holding an important position or representing a large proportion in the enterprises fixed assets;

- Reasonable value of the intangible fixed assets allocated by the State (as stipulated in paragraph 30), explicitly stating the reasonable value upon initial recognition; accumulated depreciation value; residual value of the fixed assets;

- Residual value of intangible fixed assets already mortgaged for payable debts;

- Commitments to future sale and purchase of intangible fixed assets of big value ;

- Residual value of intangible fixed assets temporarily not in use;

- Historical cost of fully-depreciated intangible fixed assets which are still in use;

- Residual value of intangible fixed assets awaiting liquidation;

- Justification of the costs incurred in the research and development stages, which have been recognized as production and business expenses in the period;

- Other changes concerning intangible fixed assets.

71. Accounting of intangible fixed assets which are classified by groups of fixed assets of the same nature and use purposes in the enterprises operations, including:

a/ The right to use land for a definite term;

b/ Trademarks;

c/ Distribution rights;

d/ Computer software;

e/ Licenses and right concession permits;

f/ Copyright, patents;

g/ Preparation formulas and methods, models, designs and prototypes;

h/ Intangible fixed assets being developed.

Standard No. 14

TURNOVER AND OTHER INCOMES
(Issued and publicized together with Decision No. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001
of the Minister of Finance)

GENERAL PROVISIONS

01. This standard aims to prescribe and guide the principles and methods of accounting turnover and other incomes, including turnover of different kinds, time of recognition of turnover, methods of accounting turnover and other incomes as basis for recording accounting books and making financial statements.

02. This standard applies to accounting turnover amounts and other incomes arising from the following transactions and operations:

a/ Goods sale: Selling products manufactured by the enterprises and bought-in goods;

b/ Provision of services: Performing the work agreed upon in the contracts in one or many accounting periods;

c/ Interests, royalties, distributed dividends and profits.

Interests mean sums of money earned from letting other persons use cash, cash equivalents or debts owed to the enterprises such as loan interest, deposit interest, securities investment profit, payment discount;

Royalty means a sum of money earned from letting other persons use one’s fixed assets such as patent, trademark, copyright, computer software;

Distributed dividends and profits mean profits distributed from the stock holding or capital contribution.

d/ Other incomes not arising from the above turnover-generating transactions and operations (the contents of other incomes are stipulated in paragraph 30).

This standard does not apply to accounting other turnover and incomes prescribed in other accounting standards.

03. For the purpose of this standard, the terms used herein are construed as follows:

Turnover means the total value of economic benefits gained by an enterprise in an accounting period, which arise from the enterprises normal production and business operations, contributing to increasing the owners capital.

Trade discount means a reduction of the listed price granted by the selling enterprises to the buyers of large volumes of goods.

Reduction of the price of goods sold means a price reduction granted to the buyers due to the goods inferior quality, wrong specifications or old-fashionedness.

Value of returns of goods sold means the value of the volume of goods sold already determined as consumed, but then returned by the buyers who declined making payment therefor.

Payment discount means a sum of money reduced by the sellers for the buyers who make full payment for the goods before the contractual deadline.

Other incomes mean revenues contributing to increasing the owners capital, which are generated from operations other than turnover-generating operations.

Reasonable value means the value of an asset exchangeable or the value of a debt voluntarily paid between the knowledgeable parties in par value exchange.

CONTENTS OF THE STANDARD

04. Turnover shall consist of only the total value of economic benefits the enterprises have gained or will gain. Amounts collected for a third party, which do not constitute a source of economic benefits nor increase the owners capital of the enterprises, shall not be considered turnover (for example: Where an agent collects proceeds from goods sale for the goods owner, his/her turnover shall only be earned commissions). Shareholders or owners capital contributions which help increase owners capital shall not be turnover.

DETERMINATION OF TURNOVER

05. Turnover is determined according to the reasonable value of received or receivable amounts.

06. Turnover arising from transactions is determined under the agreement between the enterprise and the buyer or the asset user. It is determined as the reasonable value of received or receivable amounts minus (-) trade discount, payment discount, reductions in the price of goods sold and value of returns of goods sold.

07. For cash amounts or cash equivalents not yet immediately received, turnover shall be determined by converting the nominal value of amounts receivable in future into the actual value at the time of turnover recognition at the current interest rates. The actual value at the time of turnover recognition may be smaller than the nominal value receivable in future.

08. When goods or services are exchanged for goods or services of similar nature and value, such exchange shall not be regarded as a turnover-generating transaction.

When goods or services are exchanged for goods or services of dissimilar nature and value, such exchange shall be regarded as a turnover-generating transaction. In this case, turnover shall be determined as reasonable value of the received goods or services after adjusting cash amounts or cash equivalents additionally paid or received. Where it is impossible to determine the reasonable value of the received goods or services, turnover shall be determined as equal to the reasonable value of the exchanged goods or services, after adjusting cash amounts or cash equivalents additionally paid or received.

RECOGNITION OF TRANSACTIONS

09. The transaction recognition criteria in this standard shall apply separately to each transaction. In a number of cases, the transaction recognition criteria should apply separately to each component of a single transaction in order to reflect the nature of such transaction. For example, when the selling price of a product already covers a pre-set amount for the post-sale service provision, turnover from the post-sale service provision shall be postponed until the enterprise performs such service. The transaction recognition criteria shall also apply to two or many transactions which are commercially interrelated. In this case they must be examined in an overall relationship. For example, if an enterprise sells the goods and at the same time signs another contract for re-purchase of the same goods after some time, these two contracts must be examined simultaneously and turnover therefrom shall not be recognized.

Sale turnover

10. Sale turnover shall be recognized if it simultaneously meets the following five (5) conditions:

a/ The enterprise has transferred the majority of risks and benefits associated with the right to own the products or goods to the buyer;

b/ The enterprise no longer holds the right to manage the goods as the goods owner, or the right to control the goods;

c/ Turnover has been determined with relative certainty;

d/ The enterprise has gained or will gain economic benefits from the good sale transaction;

e/ It is possible to determine the costs related to the goods sale transaction.

11. The enterprises must determine the time of transfer of the majority of risks and benefits associated with the right to own the goods to the buyers in each specific case. In most cases, this time shall coincide with the time of transfer of the benefits associated with the lawful ownership right or the goods-controlling right to the buyers.

12. Where the enterprises still bear the majority of risks associated with the right to own the goods, the concerned transactions shall not be regarded as good sale operations nor shall turnover therefrom be recognized. The enterprises must also bear any risks associated with the right to own the goods in different forms such as:

a/ The enterprises shall be also responsible for ensuring the normal operation of the fixed assets, which is not included in normal warranty provisions.

b/ When the payment for the sale of goods remains uncertain as it depends on the buyer of such goods;

c/ When the delivered goods are to be installed and such installation is an important part of the contract which the enterprise has not yet completed;

d/ When the buyer is entitled to cancel the goods purchase for some reason already stated in the purchase and sale contract and the enterprise is not sure whether or not the goods shall be returned.

13. If the enterprises have to bear only minor risks associated with the right to own the goods, the goods sale shall be determined and turnover therefrom recognized. For example, the enterprises still hold papers pertaining to the goods ownership only to ensure receipt of full payments.

14. Sale turnover shall be recognized only when there is assurance that the enterprises will receive economic benefits from the transactions. Where the economic benefits from the goods sale transactions still depend on uncertain factors, turnover therefrom shall be recognized only after these uncertain factors have been dealt with (for example, when the enterprise is not sure whether or not the Government of the host country would permit the remittance of money earned from the goods sale therein). If turnover has been recognized in cases where money has not yet been collected, once such debt is determined irrecoverable, it must be accounted into the production and business expense in the period but not recorded as a decrease in turnover. When a receivable amount is determined unlikely to be received (bad debts) it must not be recorded as a decrease in turnover, and a bad debt reserve must be set up. Bad debts, once actually determined as irrecoverable, shall be offset with the bad debt reserve.

15. Turnover and cost related to the same transaction must be simultaneously recognized according to the matching principle. The costs, including those incurred after the goods delivery date (such as warranty and other costs), are often determined with certainty when the turnover recognition conditions are met. Those sums of money prepaid by the customers shall not be recognized as turnover but as a payable debt at the time of receipt thereof from the customers. The payable debts for the sums of money prepaid by the customers shall be recognized as turnover if they simultaneously satisfy all the five conditions specific in paragraph 10.

Turnover from the service provision

16. Turnover from service provision transactions shall be recognized when the results of these transactions are determined in a reliable way. Where a service provision transaction relates to many periods, turnover shall be recognized in each period according to the results of the work volume finished on the date of making of such periods accounting balance sheet. The result of a service provision transaction shall be determined only when it satisfies all the four (4) conditions below:

a/ Turnover is determined with relative certainty;

b/ It is possible to obtain economic benefits from the service provision transaction;

c/ The work volume finished on the date of making the accounting balance sheet can be determined;

d/ The costs incurred from the service provision transaction and the costs of its completion can be determined.

17. Where the service provision transaction is carried out over many accounting periods, the determination of service turnover in each period shall be made by the percentage-of-completion method. By this method, turnover recognized in the accounting period shall be determined as a percentage of the completed work portion.

18. Turnover from the provision of services shall be recognized only when there is assurance that enterprises shall receive economic benefits from the transactions. If a recognized turnover cannot be recovered, it must be accounted as expense but not recorded as decrease in turnover. When it is uncertain to recover an amount which was already recorded into turnover (bad debts), such amount must not be recorded as decrease in turnover and a bad debt reserve must be set up therefor. When a bad debt is actually determined as irrecoverable, it shall be offset with the bad debt reserve source.

19. The enterprises may estimate turnover from the provision of services if they can negotiate with their transaction counterparts the following conditions:

a/ Liabilities and rights of each party in the provision or receipt of services;

b/ Payment prices;

c/ Payment deadline and mode;

In order to estimate turnover from the service provision, the enterprises must keep an appropriate financial planning and accounting system. When necessary, they may consider and modify the way of estimating turnover in the service-providing process.

20. The completed work portion shall be determined according to one of the following methods, depending on the nature of services:

a/ Evaluation of the completed work portion;

b/ Comparison of the percentage (5) of the completed work portion with the total work volume to be completed;

c/ The percentage (%) of the incurred costs against the estimated total cost needed for completion of the whole service-providing transaction.

The completed work portion does not depend on the periodic payments or advances of the customers.

21. Where services are provided through different but indivisible activities and over many certain accounting periods, the turnover in each period shall be recognized according to the average method. When there is a basic activity compared with other activities, the turnover recognition shall be effected according to such basic activity.

22. When the result of a service-providing transaction cannot be determined with certainty, turnover therefrom shall be recognized corresponding to the recognized and recoverable costs.

23. In the initial phase of a service-providing transaction, when its result cannot be determined with certainty, the turnover therefrom shall be recognized as equal to the recognized and recoverable costs. If costs related to such service are surely irrecoverable, the turnover therefrom shall not be recognized, and the costs already incurred shall be accounted as expense so as to determine the business results in the period. Where there are reliable evidences that the incurred costs are recoverable, the turnover therefrom shall be recognized according to the provisions in paragraph 16.

Turnover from interests, royalties, distributed dividends and profits

24. Turnover arising from interests, royalties, distributed dividends and profits of the enterprises shall be recognized if they simultaneously satisfy the two (2) conditions below:

a/ It is possible to obtain economic benefits from the concerned transactions;

b/ Turnover is determined with relative certainty.

25. Turnover from interests, royalties, distributed dividends and profits of the enterprises shall be recognized on the basis of:

a/ Interests recognized on the basis of the actual time and interest rates in each period;

b/ Royalties recognized on the basis of accruement in compliance with the contracts.

c/ Distributed dividends and profits shall be recognized when shareholders are entitled to receive dividends or the capital-contributing parties are entitled to receive profits from the capital contribution.

26. Actual interest rates are interest rates used in the conversion of sums of money receivable in future throughout the duration in which fixed assets are used by other parties into the initially-recognized value at the time the fixed assets are handed over to the users. Interest turnover consists of the allocated amounts of assorted discounts, additional amounts, pre-paid interests or differences between the initial book value of debt tools and their value upon maturity.

27. Where uncollected interests on an investment have been accrued before the enterprise purchases such investment, if the enterprise manages to collect interests on the investment, it must allocate such interests to the periods prior to the investment purchase. Only the interest portion of the periods after the purchase of the investment shall be recognized as the enterprises turnover. The interest portion in the periods prior to the purchase of the investment shall be accounted as decrease in the value of such investment.

28. Royalties may be accrued under the provisions of the contracts (for example, the royalty of a book is accrued on the basis of the quantity of copies per publication and on the publication times) or calculated on the basis of each contract.

29. Turnover shall be recognized when there is assurance that the enterprises shall receive economic benefits from the transactions. When an amount which has been recorded as turnover becomes irrecoverable, such irrecoverable or uncertainly recoverable amount must be accounted as expense incurred in the period, but not recorded as turnover decrease.

Other incomes

30. Other incomes prescribed in this standard include revenues from irregular- activities other than turnover-generating activities, including:

- Revenues from the asset liquidation and sale;

- Fines paid by customers for their contract breaches;

- Collected insurance compensation;

- Collected debts which had been written off and included in the preceding periods expenses;

- Payable debts now recorded as revenue increase as their owners no longer exist;

- Collected tax amounts which now are reduced and reimbursed;

- Other revenues.

31. Revenue from the asset liquidation and sale is the total amount received and receivable from the buyers through asset liquidation and sale. The asset liquidation and sale costs shall be recognized as expenses so as to determine the business results in the period.

32. Collected debts which had been written off and included in the preceding periods expenses are bad debts which had been determined as irrecoverable, written-off and included in the expenses so as to determine the business results in the preceding periods, but now recovered.

33. Payable debts whose owners no longer exist are payable debts whose owners are unidentifiable or no longer exist.

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

34. In the financial statements, the enterprises must present:

a/ Accounting policies applied in the turnover recognition, including the method of determining the completed work portions of service-providing transactions;

b/ Turnover of each type of transaction and events:

- Sale turnover;

- Service provision turnover;

- Interests, royalties, distributed dividends and profits.

c/ Turnover from the exchange of goods or services according to each type of activity mentioned above.

d/ Other incomes, irregular incomes presented in detail.-

 

 

THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE
 
 
 
 
Nguyen Sinh Hung

 

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Thuộc tính Văn bản pháp luật 149/2001/QD-BTC

Loại văn bảnQuyết định
Số hiệu149/2001/QD-BTC
Cơ quan ban hành
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Ngày ban hành31/12/2001
Ngày hiệu lực01/01/2002
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Lược đồ Decision no. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001 on the promulgation and announcement of four (4) accounting standards of vietnam (phase 1)


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          Decision no. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001 on the promulgation and announcement of four (4) accounting standards of vietnam (phase 1)
          Loại văn bảnQuyết định
          Số hiệu149/2001/QD-BTC
          Cơ quan ban hànhBộ Tài chính
          Người kýNguyễn Sinh Hùng
          Ngày ban hành31/12/2001
          Ngày hiệu lực01/01/2002
          Ngày công báo...
          Số công báo
          Lĩnh vựcKế toán - Kiểm toán
          Tình trạng hiệu lựcCòn hiệu lực
          Cập nhật13 năm trước

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            Văn bản gốc Decision no. 149/2001/QD-BTC of December 31, 2001 on the promulgation and announcement of four (4) accounting standards of vietnam (phase 1)

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