Thông tư 47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT

Circular No. 47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT of June 29, 2011, guiding implementation for pilot agricultural insurance in farming, livestock husbandry, aquaculture under the Decision No.315/QD-TTG dated march 01, 2011 by the Prime Minister

Nội dung toàn văn Circular No. 47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT guiding implementation for pilot agricultural


MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
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SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM Independent - Freedom – Happiness
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No.: 47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT

Hanoi, June 29, 2011

 

CIRCULAR

GUIDING IMPLEMENTATION FOR PILOT AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE IN FARMING, LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY, AQUACULTURE UNDER THE DECISION NO.315/QD-TTG DATED MARCH 01, 2011 BY THE PRIME MINISTER

Pursuant to the Decree No.01/2008/ND-CP dated January 03, 2008 of the Government regulating functions, duties, powers and organizational structure of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; the Decree No.75/2009/ND-CP dated September 10, 2009 of the Government amending Article 3 of the Decree No.01/2008/ND-CP dated January 03, 2008;

Pursuant to the Decision No.315/QD-TTg dated March 01, 2011 by the Prime Minister on the implementation of pilot agricultural insurance of the phase from 2011 to 2013;

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development guides the implementation of pilot agricultural insurance in farming, livestock husbandry, aquaculture under the Decision No.315/QD-TTg dated March 01, 2011 of the Prime Minister as follows:

Chapter 1.

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1. Scope of governing and application subjects

1. Scope of governing

This Circular guides the provisions at Clause 5, Article 1 of the Decision No.315/QD-TTg dated March 01, 2011 by the Prime Minister on the criteria, scale of production and manufacturing processes; regulates types of natural disasters, epidemic diseases and determines the extent of damage to the rice; breeding cattle (meat, plowing, reproduction) and dairy cows; pigs (meat, sows, boars); chickens, ducks (laying, meat), aquaculture (cat fish, shrimp, white shrimp) which were selected to participate in the implementation of pilot agricultural insurance in the period of 2011-2013 in 20 provinces and cities directly under the Central Government ( hereinafter referred to as provinces).

2. Subjects of application

a) The subjects who are supported insurance pilot:

Households of farmers, fishermen, ranchers, cooperative team, cooperatives, enterprises and other organizations and individuals producing agriculture, fisheries (hereinafter referred to as producers) participating in pilot agricultural insurance of the phase of 2011 - 2013 under clause 2, Article 1 of the Decision No.315/QD-TTg dated March 01, 2011 by the Prime Minister.

b) The objects to be covered and areas piloting insurance:

- To implement insurance for the rice in Nam Dinh, Thai Binh and Nghe An, Ha Tinh and Binh Thuan, An Giang, Dong Thap;

- To implement insurance for livestock husbandry: Pigs (meat, sows, boars) in Hanoi, Vinh Phuc and Hai Phong, Bac Ninh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Dong Nai; Chicken (Meat, laying) in Bac Ninh, Hai Phong, Vinh Phuc, Dong Nai; Duck (meat, laying) in Bac Ninh, Hai Phong, Dong Nai; bull, cow (meat, plowing, reproduction) in Vinh Phuc, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Binh Dinh, Dong Nai; Dairy cow in Hanoi, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Dong Nai; buffalo (meat, plowing, reproduction) in Vinh Phuc, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An;

- To implement insurance for aquaculture: Cat fish in Ben Tre, Tra Vinh; shrimp (Penaeus monodon), shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Ben Tre, Bac Lieu, Ca Mau, Soc Trang.

Article 2. Principles for selection of areas to implement and conditions to support pilot agricultural insurance

1. Principles for selection of areas to implement

a) Each province shall select locations of insurance pilot with scale of manufacturing representatively for the insured objects of the locality;

b) The rural districts and communes that were selected must ensure representation and reasonableness in the regions; facilitate the preliminary review, summing up, evaluation, monitoring, drawing experience, and expansion;

c) Ensuring the principles the majority covering the few;

d) In accordance with the policy of development of agriculture, farmers, rural areas of the State.

2. Conditions to be supported pilot of insurance

a) To comply with Clause 4, Article 1 of the Decision No.315/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister;

b) Subjects participating in insurance are required to apply for voluntary insurance, commit to participate in insurance pilot; conduct the process of cultivation, livestock husbandry, aquaculture, epidemic prevention as prescribed in this Circular or the processes of the Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development approved by the provincial-level People's Committee.

Chapter 2.

SPECIFIC PROVISIONS

Article 3. Regulations on the types of natural disasters, dangerous epidemics and identification of the extent of damage to support agricultural insurance pilot

1. The types of natural disasters: Hurricane, floods, drought, heavy cold weather, frost, salinity, and tsunamis.

2. The types of epidemics

a) For the rice: Rice grassy stunt strain 2 disease,, twisted leaves, black stripe dwarf; pests epidemic;

b) For buffalo, bull: foot and mouth disease;

c) For pigs: blue ear, foot and mouth disease;

d) For the chicken, duck: bird flu;

đ) For cat fish: liver and kidney pus disease;

e) For shrimp (Penaeus monodon): white spot virus, yellow head disease, liver and pancreas necrosis and atrophy disease;

g) For shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): white spot virus, yellow head disease, Taura syndrome disease, liver and pancreas necrosis and atrophy disease.

3. Competence to declare disasters, epidemics

Chairmen of provincial-level People's Committees shall make decision on announcement and certify the types of natural disasters, epidemics occurred in the localities under clause 1, 2 and 3 of this Circular.

4. Responsibilities of participants in insurance pilot: Upon the occurrence of damages caused by natural disasters, epidemics, the producers must notify the commune-level local authorities to organize the certification of damage and at the same time coordinate with the concerned parties to limit losses and conduct procedures for settlement of compensation as prescribed.

5. The level of damage to be covered

a) Under the influence of types of natural disasters, epidemic diseases specified in clauses 1, 2 and 3 of this Circular, makes yield of the harvested rice of the region be lower than 75% (<75%) of the average yield per production season in 03 latest years; livestock husbandry be lost at 20%; aqua-farming products be lost at 30% or more (by economic value), it shall be covered.

Chairmen of provincial-level People's Committees confirm the extent of damage in the localities for used as a basis for settlement of compensation under the terms of the insurance contracts approved by the Finance Ministry.

b) For the rice, breeding animals, aquaculture products insured pilot which were treated, cared by veterinary agencies, plant protection agencies or producers shall be paid for drugs, treatment wages, but not more than 20% of insured value.

Article 4. Regulations on the criteria of scale, production processes for the rice

1. The criteria and scale, locations of rice production

a) The scale and location of rice production: Each province is selected 03 rural districts; scale of coverage of the entire rural district for locations specialized in rice production (the area of arable land at least 05 hectares or more) in the main season of the rice production: East - Spring, Season, Summer – Autumn.

b) Infrastructure of the rice production areas: there are convenient roads; system of irrigation to meet basically production and harvesting of rice in normal weather conditions in the locality.

2. Rice production processes: comply with provisions in Appendix 1 attached to this Circular or processes of the Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development approved by the Provincial-level People's Committees.

Article 5. Regulations of criteria of scale, production processes for livestock husbandry

1. The criteria and scale of the breeding areas: Each province is selected 03 rural districts, each rural district is selected 03 communes; scale of insurance is the entire commune.

2. For breeding buffalo, bull (meat, plowing, reproduction) and dairy cows.

a) The farming scale: The households raising buffalo, bull in the form of captivity or controlled grazing (not applicable to buffalo, bull roamed freely) with from 01 buffalo/bull or more.

b) Raising process: Applicable to provisions in Appendix II issued together with this Circular.

c) The time to calculate insurance:

- For buffalo, bull (meat, plowing): from 06 months of age or more, irrespective of sex, normal health, without congenital malformations;

- For buffalo, bull (reproduction), dairy cow: calculated from 12 months of age or more with explicit sexuality, ensuring the breeding standards.

3. For pig breeding (meat, sows, boars)

a) Livestock husbandry scale: the breeding households having number of pigs from 02 pigs/batch or more, sows from 01 sow or more; boars from 01 boar or more.

b) Raising process: Applicable to provisions in Appendix III issued together with this Circular.

c) The time to calculate insurance:

- Raising pigs for meat: Time covered is maximum 150 days (the exotic pigs calculated as from they are 50 days old to be raised till 200 days old when slaughtered; hybrid pigs calculated as from they are 60 days old to be raised till 210 days old when slaughtered);

- Raising sows: Time covered is a maximum period of 180 days (from when sows mated are pregnant until piglets are weaned);

- Raising boars: time starting to be covered is from 8 months old for domestic pigs and 10 months old for exotic and hybrid pigs. Time starting to calculate insurance is not more than 34 months for sperm exploited boars used in artificial insemination and 28 months for direct inseminating boars.

4. Raising chickens, ducks (meat, laying)

a) Livestock husbandry scale: The total herd has from 200 chickens/ducks or more for chickens, ducks used as meat and from 100 chickens/ducks with chickens, ducks laying eggs.

b) Raising process: Applicable to provisions in Appendix IV issued together with this Circular.

c) The time to calculate insurance

- Raising chickens and ducks as meat: From 01 to 50 days for industrial chickens, ducks; 01-70 days for chickens, ducks of twofold purposes and 01-150 days for native chickens, ducks;

- Raising chickens and ducks laying eggs: From 01-365 days for laying hens and 700 days for laying ducks.

Article 6. Regulations on criteria of scale, production processes for aquaculture (cat fish, shrimp (Penaeus monodon), shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

1. Criteria for selecting farming areas, farms

a) The scale and areas of the breeding: Each province is selected 03 rural districts, each rural district is selected 03 communes; each commune is selected raising areas; scale of insurance is the entire commune.

b) Conditions for breeding facilities, breeding areas:

- The intensive cat fish farming area must have an area of 05 hectares or more;

- The intensive shrimp (Penaeus monodon), shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farming area must have an area of 05 hectares or more; semi-intensive area must have an area of 10 ha, improved extensive farming area must have an area of 15 hectares or more;

- The catfish, shrimp (Penaeus monodon), shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farming area must be ensured to have traffic road; irrigation system basically meeting the production requirements.

2. Production process:

a) For intensive catfish farming: Applicable to Appendix V, issued together with this Circular.

b) For shrimp (Penaeus monodon): Applicable to provisions in Appendix VI (intensive farming), Appendix VII (semi-intensive farming), and Appendix VIII (improved extensive farming) issued together with this Circular.

c) For intensive farming, semi-intensive farming of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Applicable to provisions in Appendix IX, issued together with this Circular.

Chapter 3.

ORGANIZATION OF IMPLEMENTATION

Article 7. Responsibilities of the agencies

1. Responsibilities of the Departments and the Directorate of Fisheries

a) Department of Economic Cooperation and Rural Development shall:

- Preside over and coordinate with other concerned departments and the Directorate of Fisheries to organize the implementation of the tasks under the scope of responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development at the Decision No.315/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister;

- Examine, supervise and evaluate the pilot implementation of agricultural insurance under the assigned range;

- Quarterly synthesize, make reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development on the implementation of pilot agricultural insurance, and send to the Finance Ministry.

b) The other concerned Departments and the Directorate of Fisheries shall:

Direct, guide and inspect, monitor and evaluate the implementation of pilot agricultural insurance within the scope of the assignment and submit quarterly reports to the Department for Economic Cooperation and Rural Development.

2. Responsibilities of the provincial-level People's Committees

a) To direct and organize the implementation of agricultural insurance pilot;

b) To disclose and certify types of natural disasters, epidemics occurred in the specific areas of the localities;

c) To direct the provincial Bureau of Statistics to announce the actual yield after each crop, rice prices of the latest crop and economic value of livestock husbandry, aquaculture for use as a basis for charging and settling an insurance claim;

d) To direct the Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development, Departments of Finance, People's Committees at all levels in the areas covered, the subjects participating in agricultural insurance pilot, the relevant agencies to implement following the guidance and the manufacturing processes specified in this Circular;

đ) To examine, supervise and evaluate the pilot implementation of agricultural insurance in the localities;

e) Quarterly to report the evaluation of the implementation and propose the measures to implement the insurance pilot and send to the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

3. Responsibilities of Insurers

a) To implement pilot agricultural insurance under the scope and application subjects defined in Article 1 of this Circular;

b) To coordinate with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Finance and People's Committees at all levels in the provinces participating in the insurance pilot for better service of participants in pilot agricultural insurance in accordance with regulations;

c) Quarterly to report the performance result and propose measures to implement and send to the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and provincial People's Committees where pilot agricultural insurance is made.

Article 8. Effect

This Circular takes effect from July 01, 2011.

In the course of implementation if any problems arise, the People's Committees at all levels and producers participating in the pilot agricultural insurance report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Finance and the Insurers implementing the pilot agricultural insurance for researching and supplementing accordingly.

 

 

 

FOR MINISTER
DEPUTY MINISTER




Ho Xung Hung

 

APPENDIX I

RICE CULTIVATION PROCESS PARTICIPATED IN PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with the Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

A. SUBJECTS AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements for rice cultivation applied to the provinces (Nam Dinh, Thai Binh, An Giang, Dong Thap, Binh Thuan) participating in the pilot agriculture insurance.

B. CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION

I. PROVINCES OF NAM DINH, THAI BINH

A. Winter – Spring crop

a) Seasons: Winter - Spring mainly using short-term varieties of rice, cultivation period in late spring.

Landmark time of safely flowering rice from 01/5 to 15/5 is used as a basis to calculate the time of sowing varieties suitable for each variety and each rice season. General direction is a neat arrangement at each period, in each locality, each period, focusing on sowing rice seed in about 07-10 days, in particular:

- Period of early spring sowing from 15 to 20/11, Spring of the main crop sowing from day 5 to the day of 15/12, transplanting from 20/01 until 10/02.

- Late spring period concentrated to sow rice seed after cold spell from 20/01 until 10/02. Focus on transplanting rice after commencement of spring on 10/02 to 25/02, ending transplanting of spring rice prior to 28/02.

Sowing rice seed: from 10/02 till 15/02;

* Orientation of cultivating rice varieties:

Each locality selects from 3-4 major rice varieties and 1-2 additional rice varieties to facilitate the production of goods, and reducing pressure on crop, pests, and prices. Several major rice varieties for the cultivation periods as follows:

- Periods of Early Spring, Mid Spring use the varieties: VN10, Xi23, X21, Huong Com, DS1 ...

- Late Spring period focuses on 2 groups of varieties:

+ Group of high yield, average quality: Khang Dan 18, Q5, TBR1, TBR36, DB5, DB6, DT37, Khang dan dot bien, Nhi Uu 838, Nhi Uu 86B, Nhi Uu 69, Phu Uu No. 1, VL20 , VL24, TH3-4, HYT83, HYT100, Thuc Hung 6, Van Quang 14, B-TE1, D.uu 527, D.uu 725, Syn.6, Thien uu 1025, ...

+ Group of relatively yield, high quality: QR1, HT1, Bac Thom 7, Nang Xuan, ND1, ND5, VHC, QR1, BC15, Nep 87, Nep 97, HYT100, TH3-3 and some new varieties which have been recognized for trial production such as HT6, TL6, T10 ...

b) Transplanting density: depending on the characteristics of rice varieties and soil type to transplant with the appropriate density:

- The hybrid rice variety: transplant density 35-40 clusters/m2, transplant 1-2 units of rice seedling/cluster.

- The very short pure rice varieties: transplant about 50 clusters/m2; few-day varieties: transplant 45-50 clusters/m2; many-day and medium-day varieties: transplant about 40-45 clusters/m2, transplant 2-3 units of rice seedling/cluster.

c) Fertilizer: quantity of fertilizer is depended on the different varieties and soil.

- The quantity of fertilizer per ha:

+ Cattle manure: 8-10 tons (or 500 to 600 kg of organic microrganism fertilizer);

+ Urea nitrogenous fertilizer: 200-300 kg;

+ Superphosphate: 500-600 kg;

+ Potassium chloride: 160-200 kg;

(Sunken, aluminous field bases need to be fertilized additionally 500 - 700kg lime/ha)

- Method to fertilize:

+ For the few-day varieties

• Basal fertilizing: full cattle manure + phosphate + 40% nitrogen + 30% potassium;

• Top dressing as rice taken green roots: 50% nitrogen + 30% potassium;

(Note: fertilizing nitrogen if the weather is warm in the spring season).

• Pre-earing pressing fertilizing: 10% nitrogen + 40% potassium.

+ For the medium and many-day varieties:

• Basal fertilizing before transplanting: full cattle manure, phosphate + 40% nitrogen;

• Top dressing as rice take green roots: 40% nitrogen + 50% potassium;

• Pre-earing pressing fertilizing: 20% nitrogen + 50% potassium.

d) The water level: When transplanting rice, let water level be shallow to help the manipulations to be convenient, regular; then, drain slightly (to 2 - 3 cm of water away from field surface) for rice to breed strongly. When transplanting “ma day xuc”, “ma san”, needs to adjust water accordingly. When rice’s breeding is finished, drain water to the parched field, then lead water into the field at normal level for the rice to flower, and transmit dry matter in grains. When rice is ripe, drain off water for rice trees to be hard, not being fallen.

đ) Weeding: Herbicide use for clearing weeds as guided or weeding grass and stirring mud 1-2 times, combined with fertilizer.

e) The pests need to be prevented: Thrips always damaging at the stage of rice seedling and tender rice; leaf rolling insect (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis Guenee), Brown planthopper at the stage of rice’s development as a girl, mother-stalk and starting the flowering; shilver leaf, sheath blight, blast, bacterial striped spots appearing at the stage of mother-stalk, flowering; schoenobius at the stage of flowering ... should be monitored regularly for pest control in time.

2. Crops

a) Season:

- Early season: sowing on 10/6 - 20/6 with pure rice varieties: Khang Dan 18, Q5, BC15, QR1, HT1, Bac Thom 7, Viet huong chiem, Nam Dinh 1, Nam Dinh 5, Nep 87, Nep 97, Nep IRi352 and some varieties of local specialties;

The hybrid rice varieties: Phu uu No.1, Nam Duong 99, N. uu 69, HYT100, TH3-3, Viet lai 20, TX111, CNR02, Thien Uu 1025, TH3-3;

- Middle season: sowing on 15/6 - 25/6 with rice varieties: X21, Xi23, VN10, NX30, Bac uu 903 KBL, BTE-1 ...; QR1, Viet huong chiem, Khang Dan 18, Nam Dinh 1, TX111, Phu uu 1, CNR02, Nam Duong 99, N.uu 69, HYT100, Thien uu 1025, Nep N87, N97, TH3-3, BC15, TBR1 (Q5), Bac Thom No.7;

- Late season: sowing on 25/5 - 5/6; transplanting: on 25/6 - 5/7 with rice varieties: Nep Bac, Nep Cai Hoa Vang, Du, Tam Thom of all types ...

b) Transplanting density: depending on the characteristics of rice varieties and soil type to transplant with the appropriate density:

- The hybrid rice varieties: transplant density 40 clusters/m2, transplant 1-2 units of rice seedling/cluster;

- The very short pure rice varieties: transplant about 50 clusters/m2; few-day varieties: transplant 45-50 clusters/m2; many-day and medium-day varieties: transplant about 40-45 clusters/m2, transplant 2-3 units of rice seedling/cluster;

- Sowing directly 40-50 kg rice seeds/ha;

c) Fertilizer: quantity of fertilizer is depended on the different varieties and soil

- The amount of fertilizer for one ha:

+ Cattle manure: 8-10 tons (or 500 to 600 kg of organic microrganism fertilizer);

+ Urea nitrogenous fertilizer: 200-250 kg;

+ Superphosphate: 450 - 500 kg;

+ Potassium chloride: 160 - 220kg.

(Low field bases need to be fertilized additionally 500 - 700kg lime/ha)

- Method to fertilize:

+ For the few-day varieties

• Basal fertilizing: full cattle manure + phosphate + 40% nitrogen + 30% potassium;

• Top dressing as rice taken green roots: 50% nitrogen + 30% potassium;

(Note: fertilizing nitrogen if the weather is warm in the spring season).

• Pre-earing pressing fertilizing: 10% nitrogen + 40% potassium.

+ For the medium and many-day varieties:

• Basal fertilizing before transplanting: full cattle manure, phosphate + 40% nitrogen;

• Top dressing as rice taken green roots: 40% nitrogen + 50% potassium;

• Pre-earing pressing fertilizing: 20% nitrogen + 50% potassium.

d) The water level: When transplanting rice, adjust water properly to help the manipulations to be convenient; adjust water level to 2 - 3 cm for rice to breed strongly at the stage of rice’s branches breeding. When rice’s breeding is finished, drain water to the parched field, then lead water into the field at normal level for the rice to flower, and transmit dry matter in grains. When rice is ripe, drain off water for rice trees to be hard, not being fallen.

đ) Weeding: Herbicide use for clearing weeds as guided or weeding grass and stirring mud 1-2 times, combined with fertilizer.

e) The pests need to be prevented: Thrips always damaging at the stage of rice seedling and tender rice; leaf rolling insect (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis Guenee), Brown planthopper at the stage of rice’s development as a girl, mother-stalk and starting the flowering; shilver leaf, sheath blight, blast, bacterial striped spots appearing at the stage of mother-stalk, flowering; schoenobius at the stage of flowering ... should be monitored regularly for pest control in time.

II. NGHE AN, HA TINH PROVINCES

1. Winter – Spring

a) Season:

Based on the growth duration of each variety to determine sowing time, so make sure that rice’s flowering is focused on 25/4 - 05/5; each period is concentrated to cultivate for 5 days, namely:

- Early Spring: Can be sown from 25/12 of previous year to the day of 05/01 of next year.

- Spring of the main crop may be sown from 10 - 25/01 each year.

* Orientation for the variety structure:

The arrangement of the variety structure will be based on test results, trial production and recognition of new seeds every year; to use a number of top varieties in the short-term as follows:

- Early Spring: Using the varieties AC5, BT-E1, BC15;

- Spring of the main crop: Using the varieties: Khai Phong No.1, Nhi Uu 986, Thien nguyen uu 9, Kim uu 725, Nhi Uu 725, Syn6, Nghi huong 2308, Bio.404, Duong Quang 18, N.uu 69, PHB71, Nam Duong 99, Khai phong No. 7, Q.uu 6, Q.uu 1, Huong thom No. 1, Bac thom No. 7; Vat tu-NA1, Nep 352, Nep 97, Nep 87;

b) Transplanting density: Depending on the characteristics of the varieties, soil type, level of culture intensive to transplant an appropriate density, namely:- The areas applied the culture intensive technique for improved rice (SRI) are transplanted with a density of 25-30 clusters/ m2, 1-2 units of rice seedling/cluster.

- The areas are not applied improved intensive technique:

+ The hybrid rice varieties: transplant density 40 clusters/m2, transplant 1-2 units of rice seedling/cluster;

+ The very short pure rice varieties: transplant about 50 clusters/m2; few-day varieties: transplant 45-50 clusters/m2; many-day and medium-day varieties: transplant about 40-45 clusters/m2, transplant 2-3 units of rice seedling/cluster.

c) Fertilizer:

- The quantity of fertilizer per ha:

+ Cattle manure: 8-10 tons (or 500 to 600 kg of organic microrganism fertilizer);

+ Urea nitrogenous fertilizer: 200-250 kg;

+ Superphosphate: 500-600 kg;

+ Potassium chloride: 160-200 kg;

(Low field bases need to be fertilized additionally 400 - 500kg lime/ha)

- Method to fertilize:

+ For the few-day varieties

• Basal fertilizing: full cattle manure + phosphate + 40% nitrogen + 30% potassium;

• Top dressing as rices take green roots: 50% nitrogen + 30% potassium;

• Pre-earing pressing fertilizing: 10% nitrogen + 40% potassium.

+ For the medium and many-day varieties:

• Basal fertilizing before transplanting: full cattle manure, phosphate + 40% nitrogen;

• Top dressing as rice taken green roots: 40% nitrogen + 50% potassium;

• Pre-earing pressing fertilizing: 20% nitrogen + 50% potassium.

d) The water level: When transplanting rice, adjust water properly to help the manipulations to be convenient; adjust water level to 2 - 3 cm for rice to breed strongly at the stage of rice’s branches breeding. When rice’s breeding is finished, drain water to the parched field, then lead water into the field at normal level for the rice to flower, and transmit dry matter in grains. When rice is ripe, drain off water for rice trees to be hard, not being fallen.

đ) Weeding: Herbicide use for clearing weeds as guided or weeding grass and stirring mud 1-2 times, combined with fertilizer.

e) The pests need to be prevented: Thrips always damaging at the stage of rice seedling and tender rice; leaf rolling insect (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis Guenee), Brown planthopper at the stage of rice’s development as a girl, mother-stalk and starting the flowering; shilver leaf, sheath blight, blast, bacterial striped spots appearring at the stage of mother-stalk, flowering; schoenobius at the stage of flowering ... should be monitored regularly for pest control in time.

2. Summer - Fall crop

a) Season:

- Summer – Fall season:

The concept of arranging the Summer - Fall production season is "as soon as possible" and to ensure the requirement to avoid flooding at the end of the season, so it should be based on the flowering time of Spring rice to produce seeds and it is better to produce seeds of Summer - Fall when Spring rice flowers about 10-15 days. The layout of the season, selection the variety structure must ensure the following requirements:

+ The flood running Summer – Fall region: Harvest prior to 05/9;

+ The intensive farming Summer – Fall region: Harvest not later than the day of 15/9.

- Season Crop: Ensure the harvest duration as follows:

+ Early Season: Harvest in September;

+ Main crop season: Finish the transplanting before 10/8.

b) Take care, fertilization and pest control are similar to the season in the northern provinces (Nam Dinh, Thai Binh).

III. AN GIANG, DONG THAP PROVINCES

An Giang and Dong Thap have some similarities in terms of rice production. This process is most applicable to both provinces.

1. Season

a) Winter – Spring season: starting from 26/10 to 31/12;

b) Summer – Fall season: starting from 20/03 to 10/5;

c) Fall – Winter season: starting from 25/6 to 30/8.

2. Land preparation

The field surface must be leveled flatly, made drains and cleaned up the weeds before sowing, transplanting.

a) The Winter – Spring season: After the Summer – Fall rice season is harvested completely in the 2-season land, the land is plowed until the water recedes, then it is lifted, leveled; and for the 3-seasons land, carry out to prepare soil similar to the Summer – Fall season after Fall – East rice is harvested.

b) The Summer - Fall season: After Winter – Spring rice season is harvested, plough the soil loose before sowing (minimum plowing depth is 20 cm) and dry soil for at least 2 weeks.

c) The Fall – Winter season: After the Summer - Fall rice season is harvested in the 3-season land, soil preparation measure is similar to the Summer – Fall season.

3. Seeds preparation

a) Seed selection: Select the rice varieties in the list recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development from time to time and with white rice quality meeting high quality requirement by the prescribed standards.

- In the principle of seed structure in each season, it is arranged 3-5 top varieties to be high-quality rice varieties, with an area accounting for over 15% of the production area in a season, and arranged 2-3 additional varieties to be the one which are adapted to conditions of local farming but required to be continued monitoring on a large scale. Most are few-day rice varieties with growth duration from 90-105 days. The rate of top rice varieties may vary according to each season;

- It is arranged by an order from high to low rates of rice varieties often used as follows: IR 50404, OM 4218, OM 2514, OM 2517, JASMINE 85, OM 5472, OM 4900, OMCS 2000, VD 20, VND 95-20 and Nep;

b) Quality of seeds: rice varieties must have high uniformity, not mixed with weeds, grass and other varieties of rice.

4. Sowing density

Depending on variety, season, field surface flatness and drainage capabilities of each field plot to determine seeding density, appropriate seeding density is from 80kg - 120kg/ha. It should sow by row seeding tool in the places where conditions permit.

5. Soak of seeds and seed treatment

Seeds are soaked directly into the saline solution of 15% concentration within 15-30 minutes, then pick up the imperfect grains floating above, the remaining sinking part shall be taken out to wash and soak with clean water for 48 hours, keep carefully for 24 hours until the seeds germinate. Then proceed to sow with row seeding tool.

6. Fertilizer

a) Principles of fertilization for rice: to fertilize by the plant needs at time of growth (rise seeding, tillering, rice flowers); fertilize the correct dosage; not to fertilize in excess of nitrogen. Fertilization period for rice can be divided into 3 main batches: Batch 1: from 7-10 days after sowing, Batch 2: from 18-22 days after sowing, Batch 3: from 40-45 days after sowing.

* Note: depending on growing conditions, season, time of growth of rice variety being cultivated to reduce the time of fertilization.

Quantity of fertilizer recommended for reference by each region of cultivation

Types of soil

Quantity of pure fertilizer need to be fertilized (Kg/ha)

Nitrogen (N)

Phosphate (P2O5)

Potassium (K2O)

DX

HT

DX

HT

DX

HT

Alluvial soil along the river

90 - 100

75 - 90

40 - 50

50 - 60

30 - 50

30 - 50

Slightly alum soil

80 - 100

70 - 80

40 - 60

50 - 60

30 - 50

30 - 50

Medium alum soil

60 - 80

60

40 - 60

60 - 80

30 - 50

30 - 50

* Note: DX: Winter - Spring, HT: Summer – Fall

Particularly for land cultivated 3 seasons in many years, it could be added 20% of total amount of nitrogen, and should be added organic fertilizer for soil improvement.

Use the leaf color reference sheets to control the excess of nitrogen in the last 2 batches of fertilization.

b) The time and dose of fertilizer:

- Basal fertilizing: before sowing. Acidic soil should be fertilized Van Dien  fused phosphate (16% of P2O5) from 100-400 kg/ha depending on the acidity of the soil, to lower acidity right from the beginning, the roots will grow better;

- Fertilization for the first time: 7 - 10 days after seeding (NSS), fertilize according to the following table, depending on season and soil type.

Types of soil

Quantity of fertilizer required to be used (Kg/ha)

Urea

DAP

KCl

DX

HT

DX

HT

DX

HT

Alluvial soil along the river

40 - 45

30 - 35

45 - 55

55 - 65

20 - 30

20 - 30

Slightly alum soil

35 - 45

25 - 30

45 - 65

55 - 65

20 - 30

20 - 30

Medium alum soil

25 - 30

15 - 20

45 - 65

65 - 87

20 - 30

20 - 30

* Note: thrips often cause harm at the first period of fertilization, so it must flood the field with water for 1 - 3cm before fertilizing.

- Fertilization for the 2nd time: from 18-22 days after sowing in the following table

Types of soil

Quantity of fertilizer required to be used (Kg/ha)

Urea

DAP

DX

HT

DX

HT

Alluvial soil along the river

80 - 90

60 - 73

45 - 55

55 - 65

Slightly alum soil

70 - 80

55 - 65

45 - 65

55 - 65

Medium alum soil

50 - 65

30 - 40

45 - 65

65 - 87

(Note: fertilize the field like clothing amendment in bad places to adjust the uniformity of the paddy field)

For low-density sowing fields or where seed sprouted badly, using growth stimulants to spray immediately after fertilization to increase the number of effective buds.

* Note: borers, worms, rice leaf folder, blast, Banded disease at this stage.

- Fertilization for the third times: 40-45 days after sowing in the following table:

Types of soil

Quantity of fertilizer required to be used (Kg/ha)

Urea

Potassium

DX

HT

DX

HT

Alluvial soil along the river

40 - 45

30 - 35

30 - 55

30 - 55

Slightly alum soil

35 - 45

25 - 30

30 - 55

30 - 55

Medium alum soil

25 - 30

15 - 20

30 - 55

30 - 55

(Note: it should observe rice flowers to fertilize for the paddy fields to develop better)

After fertilization is made, then retain water until rice are waxy (from 60-70 days after sowing) because at this stage if the fields are lack of water or dry, rice will be vulnerable to be flat.

* Note: blast, yellow leaf, Banded disease, flat grain, sheath blight, Brown planthopper.

- Fertilization for Fall – Winter season can apply the formula similar to the one recommended for doing in the Summer – Fall season.

Particularly for three-season land cultivated many years, it could add 20% of total nitrogen, and should add organic fertilization for soil improvement.

Depending on variety and soil conditions of each specific region, it can be changed the amount of fertilizer for suitableness to achieve the highest efficiency and can be used super phosphate, other compound fertilizers such as 20-20-15 , 16-16-8, ... to fertilize rice, but it is required to ensure the right amount of pure fertilizer;

If soil is catch alum (the fields have pH <5), it should take measures of irrigation to get rid of alum, reduce alum and add fertilizers to help lower alum such as lime (200 - 400kg/ha) prior to soil preparation, or fused phosphate (Long Thanh, Van Dien phosphates 100 - 400kg/ha).

7. Care

a) Water Management:

- Lead water into the field 5 days after sowing, water level should be average (cover the rice roots) to help the field to hold moisture well or water level is about 2 - 3 cm. It should observe golden snails (pomacea canaliculata) in field;

- From 7-10 days after sowing, continue to lead water into the field with water level of 5 - 7 cm;

- 28 days after sowing, start to dry off the field for the first time (if the rice rows’ leaves are adjacent to each other);

- From 35-49 days after sowing, lead water into the field, keep the water at level  of 5 cm (preparing to fertilize for the third batch), after fertilization is made, let water naturally recede, until 15 cm below ground surface, then pump water into the field at highest level of 5cm;

- From 80-85 days after sowing, start to dry off the field for rice to be raped and for harvest by reaping machine and the paddy harvesting machine.

Note: Depending on the time of growth of rice to adjust the time of irrigation, not to let rice be flooded throughout the crop.

b) Transplanting: when rice are about 15-20 days old, to transplant additional rice at the places where rice was dead; trim the rice at the places where the density is too thick.

c) Removal: Regularly remove the trees other than rice and weedy rice, the removal stage must be made completely 15 days before the harvest.

8. Pest Management

On the basis of the uniform application of measures, such as careful soil preparation, the flat field, sowing according to the seasonal calendar, use of seeds with high uniformity, sparse seeding, reasonable, balanced fertilizing and good water management to help the rice healthy with thin canopy, thus, it is not favorable conditions for pest development, so it should not need to use pesticide and only use herbicide, except for rice leaf blight, blast, Banded disease as a major.

a) Weeds: Prepare soil carefully and level the field, keep it flood in the early stage to control weeds. Use of drugs of pre or post-germination must be followed the recommended dosage on the label and the field must be warm enough; it should alternate herbicides with different active ingredients to reduce the resistance of weeds.

b) Golden snails (Pomacea canaliculata): Measures of most economic efficiency is to collect Golden snails (Pomacea canaliculata) before sowing seed, lead water to attract them to the sunken places for catching and controlling. If after sowing, paddy fields still have Golden snails (Pomacea canaliculata) with high density, then use chemicals.

c) Brown planthopper: Manage Brown planthopper by the manual instructing the prevention and fighting against Brown planthopper, dwarf yellow disease, twisted leaf dwarf of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. It should not use Pyrethroids to kill Brown planthopper because it is easy to make resistance and fire pests. It is encourages to use biological products derived from Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria fungus, Metarhizium, ...

* Note: Not to use pesticide derived from Acetamiprid to prevent pests from rice’s flowering stage.

d) Small leaf rolling insect (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis Guenee): Applying the method of integrated pest management IPM (main principles: the healthy rice plant, protection of natural enemies, regularly farm visiting, the farmers becoming experts) and not to use drugs in first 40 days after sowing because the Rice at this time is capable of resilience. Use chemicals by 4 rights (right time, right medication, right dosage, right way).

đ) Disease:

- Blast (blast in rice): based on variety characteristics (infected variety) and weather conditions which are convenient for damaging leaf blight’s development (fogs and cold weather at night), it must pump water into the field and use chemicals to treat.

To prevent rice flowers’ neck blast, it should be sprayed chemicals for prevention before and after the rice flowers... because when the rice is got this disease, in addition to reduction of productivity, it shall cause the significant reduction of the quality of rice as milled like increase of percentage of broken rice and rice chalkiness.

- Banded disease.

- Sanitation of field for cleaning grasses and the residues of the previous season.

- Plowing and exposure of soil to help profitable microorganisms’ development to kill germs.

- Water source in the small irrigation canals with water hyacinth, sclerotia should be paid attention when it is led into the fields, when this source of water is used, it should use the net to prevent sclerotia from the fields.

- Yellow leaf: Because the sowing of seeds is made with appropriate seeding density and fertilizer is used reasonably, so it should not need to use chemicals to treat leaf yellow disease. In case yellow leaf disease arising in the early ripening stage is detected to have more than 30% of leaves with disease signal, it can be sprayed chemicals with Benomyl active element.

- Rice leaf blight: The disease spreads by way of seeds. To manage disease, mainly using resistant varieties combined with seed treatment as recommended. Avoid fertilizing in excess of nitrogen in the field detected symptoms of disease. If the disease grows in rainy condition, it should be treated with special medications under instructed dose.

- Flat seeds: In the Summer – Fall season, if the rice flowers in the storm conditions, it may spray chemicals for prevention for 7-10 days before and after flowering with chemicals that prevent flat seeds disease.

* Note: The spraying of plant protection chemicals need to be applied by 4 rights (right chemicals, right time, right dosage, right way).

IV. Binh Thuan Province

1. Seasons

a) Winter – Spring season: starting from 15/11 to 15/12;

b) Summer – Fall season: starting from 15/3 to 30/6;

c) Crops: starting from 15/8 to 30/9.

2. Soil preparation

The field surface must be leveled flatly, made drains, and cleaned up the weeds before the sowing, transplanting is made.

3. Variety preparation

- Use certified seeds;

- The main rice varieties: ML 202, ML 214, ML 48, IR 59606, OM 4900.

4. Seeding density

Depending on variety, season, surface flatness of field surface and drainage capability of the field plot to determine seeding density, appropriate seeding density is from 150kg - 200kg/ha.

5. Soak of seeds and seed treatment

Seeds are soaked with clean water for 48 hours, keep carefully for 24 hours until the seeds germinate. Then proceed to sow freely or with row seeding tool

6. Fertilizers

- Principles of fertilization for rice: to fertilize by the plant needs at time of growth (rise seeding, tillering, rice flowers); fertilize the correct dosage; not to fertilize in excess of nitrogen. Fertilization period for rice can be divided into 3 main batches: Batch 1: from 7-10 days after sowing, Batch 2: from 18-22 days after sowing, Batch 3: from 40-45 days after sowing:

Particularly for land cultivated 3 seasons in many years, it could be added 20% of total amount of nitrogen, and should be added organic fertilizer for soil improvement.

Use the leaf color reference sheets to control the excess of nitrogen in the last 2 batches of fertilization.

Depending on the characteristics of cultivated area, the different soil types, different rice varieties, to publicize the use of fertilizers as follows:

- The amount of fertilizer per ha:

+ Nitrogen (N): 90-100 N

+ Phosphate (P2O5): 30-40 P2O5

+ Potassium (K2O): 30-40 K2O

Particularly for the varieties with growth time of more than 100 days and land cultivated 3 seasons in many years, it could be added 20% of total amount of nitrogen.

- Method to fertilize:

+ Basal fertilizing: Before sowing. Lime shall be fertilized after the first soil preparation. Depending on the acidity of the soil, to increase or decrease the amount of lime applied accordingly. Alum land is applied basal fertilization of phosphate fertilizer from 100-400 kg/ha depending on the acidity of the soil, to lower acidity from the beginning, for the roots to grow better.

+ Top dressing: 03 main batches of top dressing are divided as follows:

Batch 1: When the rice is 2-3 leaves (after sowing about 7-12 days) or after transplanting about 5 days to faster rice seedling’s development, for rice seeding to early tiller, with 30% nitrogen, 100% of phosphate if using single phosphate fertilizer, 50% of phosphate if using DAP and 50% of potassium.

Batch 2: Top dressing for the second time is made when rice is 18-22 days. Use 40% of total amount of nitrogen and 50% of remaining phosphate if using DAP.

Batch 3: Top dressing for the third time is made before the rice flowers about 15-20 days. Use the amount of remaining nitrogen and potassium fertilizer. At this stage, it needs to observe the rice’s top (length of 0.5 - 1 cm) to determine the time of fertilization and leaves’ color to determine the amount of fertilizer.

7. Water management

Depending on the time of growth of rice to adjust the time of irrigation, not to let rice be flooded throughout the crop; keep the water level in the field about 05 - 10cm.

8. Pest Management

- Prevent weeds from the beginning of rice season with chemicals of pre- or post-germination, depending on the status and condition of the field’s water management.

- Golden snails: dig drains, catch Golden snails before sowing; if density of golden snails is high, then use the chemicals in the allowed list for the eradication, it should pay attention to comply with Rule of 4 rights (right chemicals, right time, right dosage, right way).

- Rice leaf folder: rice at the period of within 40 days after sowing (or rice at the period of after 40 days after sowing but the density is under 10 folders/ m2) shall be no need treatment with chemicals.

- Brown planthopper: The most important solution is to select time for the sowing so that it can avoid planthoppers’ migration waves in the period of rice’s 20 days after sowing; therefore it needs to closely monitor the quantity of planthoppers to jump into the lights for the sowing; the most safety to sow rice is the time after the peak batch of planthoppers to jump into the lights; after sowing if planthoppers are also scattered, then use water to shield, if this measure is taken well, it will be no need to use pesticide to spray for rice of less than 1 month old. When rice is more than 1 month old, if the density of planthoppers is more than 3 planthoppers/branch, then use chemicals by the rule of four rights (right chemicals, right time, right dosage, and right way). At period of rice’s 40 days after sowing, take advantage the field’s moisture to promote prevention of planthoppers by using biological or natural chemicals (useful disease sources available on the field) to create a balanced ecosystem and help to control density of planthoppers in a sustainable way.

 

APPENDIX II

PROCESS OF LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY OF BUFFALO, BULL, AND MILKING COW SUBJECT TO PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

1. Subjects and scope of application

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements in breeding buffalo, bull, milking cow (meat, plowing, reproduction), applied to the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government participating in pilot agricultural insurance.

2. Conditions of application

a) Breeds:

- Including breeds of buffalo, bull, milking cow on the list of permitted livestock husbandry and the Ordinance on Domestic Animals No.16/2004/PL-UBTVQH11 dated March 24, 2004 of the National Assembly Standing Committee;

- Breeds from livestock husbandry facilities, areas free from epidemics, having quarantine certificates of veterinary agencies and isolated and observed for at least 21 days for infectious diseases at risk of outbreaking into epidemic nest;

- For newly purchased cattle, the livestock husbandry facilities must report to the competent local veterinary agencies.

b) Breeding facilities:

- Breeding facilities must be ensured to locate at the high places, cool in summer and warm in winter, avoided crossing rain, blowing wind; away from the rivers and streams where flooding frequently happens and at risk of flood, flash floods, fires and explosions which have been warned. Environmental hygiene and disease prevention must be made;

- Breeding facilities must be ensured to prevent contamination of communities around the area of animal husbandry;

- Area: From 3 - 4 m2/animal;

- If the facilities raise cow for milk, they must allocate enough space to milk or allocate separate milking area, breeding facilities must be clean, easy to clean and sanitize.

c) Care:

- Animal feed: Food must be ensured production needs, growth and development for each breed, object, purpose of animal husbandry; with green feed, dried feed or silage stored in winter. Not to use prohibited substances to mix into feed under current regulations.

* Rations for calves:

Days old

Rations (kg/day)

Pure milk

Mixed animal feed

Hay

Silage

10 - 30

6

 

 

 

30 - 80

3

0.4

0.2 - 0.7

 

80 - 160

 

1.0

0.2 - 0.7

4

160 - 180

 

1.5

0.2 - 0.7

5 - 10

* Rations for buffalo, bull, cow (meat, plowing, reproduction):

Body weights (kg)

Rations (kg/day)

Mixed animal feed

Hay

Silage

100 - 175

1.2

1 - 1.5

10 - 16

175 - 320

1.5

2

20 - 30

230 - 260

2.0

3

20 - 30

260 - 290

3.5

4

35

320 - 350

5.0

5

35

* Rations for pregnant buffalo, cow, milking cow:

Subjects

Rations (kg/day)

Mixed animal feed

Hay (fermented)

Silage

Pregnant buffalo, cow

3 - 4

4 - 5

30 - 40

Milking cow

4 - 5

4 - 5

40 - 50

- Water: Provide adequate clean drinking water to meet the needs of growth and development of cattle.

- Regularly monitor their health, if any strange phenomenon happens, it must immediately notify the responsible person for monitoring and inspection.

d) Veterinary sanitation

- Periodically disinfect, sterilize ambient stables, clean stables regularly, raising tool;

- Completely vaccinate in accordance with provisions on animal health;

- The time of vaccination: 2 periodic batches (spring and fall); periodically supplemented injection; irregular injection decided by local veterinarians;

- Dose: As instructed by the manufacturer.

 

APPENDIX III

PROCESS OF LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY OF PIGS SUBJECT TO PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

A. SUBJECTS AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements in breeding pigs (meat, sows, boars, breeds), applied to the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government participating in pilot agricultural insurance.

B. CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION

I. PIG FOR MEAT

1. Selection of breeds

- Origin: breeds must be produced in the prestigious facilities, free from the pandemics;

- Appearance and constitution: breeds must have healthy, active, agile and balanced appearance (non-deformity, non-disability);

Breeding pigs bought from outside are required to have the quarantine certificates in accordance with provisions of veterinary offices; raising to monitor for at least 21 days;

2. Care

a) Breeding facilities:

- Breeding facilities must be isolated with housing, cooking stoves, or other facilities for living of farming households; it must have biological safety location, distances for concentrated animal husbandry, farms;

- Areas of stables must be ensured enough space for the pigs to eat, sleep and well exercise;

- Stables must be roofed to shield the sun and avoid leaking from rain water, to be warm in winter;

- Stable floor and walls around the stable must be ensured to be easy to implement hygiene, disinfection, and sterilization.

b) Feed and drinking water:

- Provide adequate hygiene feed for pigs by the growing stages;

- The feed rate/pig/day (recommendation for application):

Weight of live bodies

Weight of mixed feed/pig/day

Exotic breeding pigs

Hybrid breeding pigs (domestic x exotic)

From 12 - 30 kg

0.7 -0.9 kg

0.6 – 0.8 kg

From 30 - 60 kg

1.0 – 1.7 kg

0.9 – 1.6 kg

More than 60 kg

1.8 – 2.2 kg

1.7 – 2.0 kg

Note: If using a mixture of availably processed feed, feeding level shall be followed recommendation by the manufacturer.

- Number of meals/day:

+ From the starting date of raising till it is 30 kg/pig: to feed four meals/day;

+ Pigs about 31-65 kg/pig: to feed 3 meals/day;

+ Pigs of more than 66 kg/pig: to feed 2 meals/day;

+ Provide sufficient clean water by demands of pigs.

c) Veterinary hygiene:

- Every day, collect solid waste, clean pig troughs, drinking troughs and the stable floor;

Periodically sprinkle lime powder or spray disinfectants around the barns, livestock areas once a week when there is no epidemic; frequently comply with recommendations of the manufacturers of the sanitizers when epidemic diseases outbreak;

- After each litter of pigs was sold out or after pigs were transferred to another place, the barns must be conducted sanitation, disinfection; to be empty for at least 7 days for raising another herd or litter of pigs;

- Implement full vaccination according to the process of the Veterinary offices.

3. Livestock husbandry management

- No to breed free ranging pigs;

- To perform the same in, and the same out in animal husbandry;

- Pigs at age put into breeding for meat is not less than 50 days old for exotic breeding pigs and 60 days old for hybrid breeding pigs;

- Pigs at age slaughtered for meat are not more than 200 days old for exotic breeding pigs and 210 days old for hybrid breeding pigs.

II. SOWS

1. Breed selection

- Origin: breeds must be produced in the prestigious facilities, free from the pandemics;

- Appearance and constitution: breeds must have healthy, active, agile and balanced appearance (non-deformity, non-disability);

- Breeding sows bought from outside are required to have the quarantine certificates in accordance with provisions of veterinary offices; raising to monitor for at least 21 days.

2. Care

a) Breeding facilities:

- Breeding facilities must be isolated with housing, cooking stoves, or other facilities for living of farming households; it must have biological safety location, distances for concentrated animal husbandry, farms;

- Areas of stables must be ensured enough space for the sows to eat, sleep and well exercise;

- Stables must be roofed to shield the sun and avoid leaking from rain water, to be warm in winter;

- Stable floor and walls around the stable must be ensured to be easy to implement hygiene, disinfection and sterilization.

b) Feed and drinking water:

- Provide adequate hygiene feed for sows, piglets in the periods;

- With regard to hybrid type from exotic x domestic sows:

Weight of sows

Fine feed (kg/day)

Fast feed (kg/day)

Number of meals/day

1. Reserve sows:

 

 

 

From 21 - 40 kg

1.0 – 1.3

3

3

From 41 kg - coupling

1.4 – 1.5

3

2

2. Pregnant sows:

 

 

 

Pregnant of period 1 (85 days)

1.0 – 1.3

3-4

2

Pregnant of period 2 (30 days)

1.4 – 1.7

3-4

2

3. Dropping date of sows:

0.0 – 0.5

2

 

First 3 days after dropping

1-2

1

3-4

From the forth dropping day onwards (depending on number of raised piglets)

2.5 – 5.0

2

3-4

- For exotic breeding sows:

Weight of sows

Fine feed (kg/day)

Number of meals/day

1. Reserve sows:

 

 

From: 20-25 kg

1,0 – 1.2

3

      26-30 kg

1.3. – 1.4

3

      31-40 kg

1.4 – 1.6

3

      41-45 kg

1.7 – 1.8

2

      46 - 50kg

1.9 – 2.0 kg

2

      51-65 kg

2.1 – 2.2

2

      66-80 kg

2.1 – 2.2

2

      81-90 kg

2.2 – 2.3

2

2. Pregnant sows:

 

 

Pregnant of period 1 (85 days)

2.0 – 2.5

2

Pregnant of period 1 (30 days)

2.5 – 3.0

2

3. Dropping date of sows:

0.0 – 0.5

 

First 3 days after dropping

1.0 – 2.0

3-4

From the forth dropping day onwards (depending on number of raised piglets)

2.5 – 5.0

3-4

- Provide sufficient clean water by demands of sows and piglets.

c) Veterinary hygiene:

- Every day, collect solid waste, clean pig troughs, drinking troughs and the stable floor;

Periodically sprinkle lime powder or spray disinfectants around the barns, livestock areas once a week when there is no epidemic; frequently comply with recommendations of the manufacturers of the sanitizers when epidemic diseases outbreak;

- After each litter of sows was sold out or after pigs were transferred to another place, the barns must be conducted sanitation, disinfection; to be empty for at least 7 days for raising another herd or litter of sows;

- Implement full vaccination according to the process of the Veterinary offices.

d) Management and exploitation:

- No to breed free ranging sows;

- To perform the same in, and the same out in animal husbandry;

- Piglets at age weaned are not more than 30 days old after being dropped for exotic breeding sows and not more than 65 days old after being dropped for domestic or hybrid breeding sows;

III. BOARS

1. Breed selection

- Origin: breeds must be produced in the prestigious facilities, free from the pandemics;

- Appearance and constitution: breeds must have healthy, active, agile and balanced appearance (non-deformity, non-disability);

- Breeding boars bought from outside are required to have the quarantine certificates in accordance with provisions of veterinary offices; raising to monitor for at least 21 days.

2. Care

a) Care

- Breeding facilities:

- Breeding facilities must be isolated with housing, cooking stoves, or other facilities for living of farming households; it must have biological safety location, distances for concentrated animal husbandry, farms;

- Areas of stables must be ensured enough space for the boars to eat, sleep and well exercise;

- Stables must be roofed to shield the sun and avoid leaking from rain water, to be warm in winter;

- Stable floor and walls around the stable must be ensured to be easy to implement hygiene, disinfection and sterilization.

b) Feed and drinking water:

- Provide adequate hygiene feed for boars by the growing stages, for exploitation and use. Feed amount is from 2.0 to 2.3 kg of compound feed/boar/day.

- After each time of exploiting sperm, feed boars additionally 0.2 to 0.3 kg bean sprouts or 1-2 eggs;

- Provide adequate clean water by demand of the boars.

c) Veterinary hygiene:

- Every day, collect solid waste, clean boar troughs, drinking troughs and the stable floor;

Periodically sprinkle lime powder or spray disinfectants around the barns, livestock areas once a week when there is no epidemic; frequently comply with recommendations of the manufacturers of the sanitizers when epidemic diseases outbreak;

- After boars were transferred to another place, the barns must be conducted sanitation, disinfection; to be empty for at least 7 days for raising another boar;

- Implement full vaccination according to the process of the Veterinary offices.

d) Management and exploitation:

- Boars bred to produce sperm used in artificial insemination are the boars that are tested the individual productivity and must meet the requirements of quality according to standards of individual productivity test. Number of times of exploiting sperm is not more than twice/week for breeding boar under two years old and not more than three times/week for breeding boar over two years old. Age began for exploiting sperm of the breeding boar is no less than eight months old for domestic boars, ten months old for exotic boar and use age is not more than three and a half years;

- Breeding boars are used for coupling directly not more than three times/week. Age of boar began for coupling directly is no less than eight months old for domestic boars, ten months old for exotic boar and use age is not more than three years.

 

APPENDIX IV

PROCESS OF LIVESTOCK HUSBANDRY OF CHICKENS, DUCKS SUBJECT TO PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

A. SUBJECTS AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements in breeding chickens, ducks (laying, meat), applied to the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government participating in pilot agricultural insurance.

B. CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION

I. PROCESS OF RAISING CHICKENS

A. The process of raising chickens

a) Breed selection:

Breeds must be healthy, have clearly-known origin, be quarantined, free from the epidemic areas.

b) Care of chicks:

In the first week, chicks are kept in the circle enclosure. Enclosure is made of compressed weaved bamboo or trellis. Each enclosure contains from 300 – 500 chicks. It must be lined by trimming of 10cm thick in the enclosure. Right in the middle of the enclosure, there must be heating tool by gas. Chicks are heated constantly in the first week with heating temperature reduced gradually from 330C to 300C. Humidity is from 60-70%. Lighting must be conducted all day and night. The feed is the one for chick care, is contained in the square trays made of toile, and dietary is freedom. Water is contained in gallons trough. If the cold season comes, it must use warm water. Supplement vitamins to strengthen the resistance of chickens according to veterinary sector process.

c) Raising chickens for meat:

After 1 week of age, the chicks are let out of the enclosure and raised in the stables. The stable floor is lined with trimming or rice husk of 10cm thick. Enclose the corners of stable for chicken to avoid being dead by compressed weaved bamboo, continue heating chicks until they are 21 days old. If cold winter comes, it needs to heat additionally chickens until they are 28 days old, and then keep stable’s temperature stably at 22 - 250C. Quit gallons trough; fit automatic breast drinking troughs. Remove chick feeding trays, use round trough P50 for meat chickens. Use a mixture feed for meat chickens or mixed feed with corn, bran, rice, broken rice of prestigious animal feed production establishments. Use these types depending on the stages and the manufacturer's instructions.

d) Prevention of epidemics:

Implement full vaccination according to provisions of veterinary sector. Regular inspect and weed out sick chickens. Always check, keep the stable floors dry, if they are wet, change other pad layers. Feeding, drinking troughs must be replaced daily, cleaned and dried before put into use. Implement isolation, not to let people or animals be in or out the breeding area; not to use the same raising instruments between the raising stables. Actively kill rat, birds, insects in the breeding area. Regular make cleaning, disinfection, sterilization of the environment, breeding facilities, farming tools. Implement biosafety, the same in, and the same out in animal husbandry; be empty stable at least 21 days between each rearing litter. If it was epidemic before, empty stables at least 3 months.

2. The process of breeding hens

a) Breed selection:

Before put into breeding for laying, it needs to choose breeds at the stage of broiler chickens and preservation chickens. Select the hens having developed hips, deep chest, shiny hair, bright red crest. Breeds brought must be quarantined and free from the pandemics.

b) Breeding technique:

Preservation hens preparing for laying the first time (5%) are chosen for breeding for laying eggs. The industrial hens are often raised in industrial stables. The stables usually have 3 boxes, each stable contains 3 hens, and can be piled into many stable layers. Under the feeding, drinking troughs is the stand to collect eggs. It must have padding layer under the stable floor, usually sprinkle lime powder to dry falling stools. Feed: is the one exclusively used for hens, and can be used mixed feed for directly feeding or type of concentrated feed mixed with corn, broken rice, rice, paddy .... The quality and quantity of feed depend on the formula for each type, laying stage. In particular, crude nitrogen: 15-17%, ME: 2,700-2,800 kcal/kg, the ration is from 110 gr - 120 gr/hen/day.

For the breeds with a twofold purpose, hybrids can be raised in floor stables or floor stables combined with floor grazing. Density is from 3 -4 hens/m2. Layout the laying litters. Line the stable with padding layer by rice husk, shavings.

Lighting: hens need more light. When hens began to lay, it needs to enhance the lighting period, an additional 15 minutes per day until reaching 14h/day and stabilize until the end of culture. Lighting intensity: 5W/m2.

c) Epidemic disease prevention:

Implement full vaccination according to provisions of veterinary sector; regular make hygiene, antitoxic, disinfection of feeding, drinking troughs, farming facilities, livestock equipment. Daily monitor flocks of hens, weed out the sick hens, if signs of disease are detected, it should immediately notify the veterinary officers and immediately take preventive measures.

II. PROCESS OF RAISING DUCKS

1. The process of breeding ducks for meat

a) Selection of breeds:

Choose the healthy, one-day-old ducks with moderate weight, depending on varieties. Weed out the ducks with wet hair, rare hair, bent legs, crooked beak, anomalies. Breeds should be quarantined, must be known clearly their origins.

b) Raising ducklings:

In the first week, ducklings are kept in the circle enclosure. Enclosure is made of compressed weaved bamboo or trellis. Each enclosure contains from 200 – 300 ducklings. It must be lined by pad in the enclosure. Right in the middle of the enclosure, there must be heating tool by gas. Ducking is heated constantly in two first weeks with heating temperature reduced gradually from 320C to 280C. Humidity is from 60-70%. Lighting must be conducted 24/24. The feed is the one for duckling care, is contained in the square trays made of toile, and dietary is freedom. Water is contained in gallons trough. If the cold season comes, it must use warm water.

c) Raising ducks for meat:

After 1 week of age, the ducklings are let out of the enclosure; continued to heat until they are 14 days old; keep stable’s temperature stably at 22 - 250C; dietary is freedom. For captive ducks for meat, it can be used mixed feed for directly feeding or type of concentrated feed mixed with corn, bran, rice, broken rice…Use these types depending on the stages.  For grazing ducks, depending on the rate of collecting natural food  to distribute additional feed; feed twice: one before grazing and one for late afternoon when ducks are brought to stables, including rude nitrogen: 20 - 21%; ME: 2,800 – 3,000 kcal/kg.

Farming facilities need ventilation projected with natural light to kill bacteria. Its floor surface is hard for easy cleaning. It can be raised completely captive in the stables, and can be combined with grazing (after 1 week of age) for the hybrid ducks, native ducks. Drinking troughs are the gallon one used for the first week and the long troughs used for the stages from 2 - 7 - 8 weeks old to be fitted in middle of stables. Feeding troughs are the toile, steel or concrete one installed or constructed at two sides of the stables.

d) Prevention of epidemic disease:

Implement full vaccination according to provisions of veterinary sector; regular make hygiene, antitoxic, disinfection of feeding, drinking troughs, farming facilities, livestock equipment. Daily monitor flocks of ducks, weed out the sick one, if signs of disease are detected, it should immediately notify the veterinary officers and immediately take preventive measures.

2. The process of breeding laying ducks

a) Selection of breeds:

Breeding ducks are the one to be of the varieties like CV 2000, Khakhicambell, Star 13, Zhejiang, the twofold purpose varieties between grass ducks and exotic ducks with native grass ducks. Before raised for laying eggs, it needs to choose breeds at the stage of preservation. Breeds should be quarantined, must be known clearly their origins.

b) Breeding technique:

Exotic ducks should be raised in complete captivity, but it should combine with the places having water source, density of three ducks/m2. Lighting is conducted all day and night with intensity of 5 W/m2. Domestic ducks and ducks of twofold purpose are raised mainly as grazing, but it is still required to have stables to manage, feed and collect eggs. It needs to layout the laying nests, feeding troughs, drinking troughs in the stables, and the padding layer changed usually to avoid humidity. Eggs laying ducks raised in complete captivity can be eaten mixed feed for directly feeding or type of concentrated feed mixed with corn, bran, rice, broken rice…Use these types depending on the stages. For grazing ducks, depending on the rate of collecting natural food  to distribute additional feed; feed twice: one before grazing and one for late afternoon when ducks are brought to stables, including rude protein: 17 - 18%; ME: 2,700 – 2,800 kcal/kg. Feeding rate is 130 - 150gr/duck/day.

Dry farming without water for ducks to swim is required to double drinking water compared with normal needs and it is needed to change water regularly to ensure that it is always clean. Drinking troughs are arranged in the playground to avoid getting stables wet, not to place too far away from the places ducks eat. When drinking troughs are placed outside the stables in summer, it is required to cover them, avoid ducks drinking hot water.

Daily inspect the situation of ducks flock such as weight, laying rate, feed collection.... Weed out the one to be illness, poor eating; clean up troughs, sweep away the leftovers, foul, mold feeds; add more litter, especially laying nest. Limit the strong impact of light, sound and other unusual effects. If the phenomenon of biting each other of ducks, it should rebalance the ration, stretch breeding density, add more vegetables, cut beak; collect eggs in the morning from 6-7 o’clock.

c) Epidemic disease prevention:

Implement full vaccination according to provisions of veterinary sector; regular make hygiene, antitoxic, disinfection of feeding, drinking troughs, farming facilities, livestock equipment. Daily monitor flocks of ducks, weed out the sick one, if signs of disease are detected, it should immediately notify the veterinary officers and immediately take preventive measures.

 

APPENDIX V

TECHNOLOGY PROCESS OF INTENSIVE FARMING OF CATFISH SUBJECT TO PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

1. Subjects and scope of application

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements in intensive farming of catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage, 1878), in ponds, applied to the farms in the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government participating in pilot agricultural insurance.

2. Conditions of application

a) Pond conditions:

- Pond has an area of 1,000 m2 or more; water depth from 3m or more;

- Pond must have separate water supply and sewage drainage, pond banks are required firmly, not being leaked, not being overflow upon raining season.

b) The pond water environment in the process of breeding must be ensured to meet the following criteria:

- Appropriate water temperature from 26 to 300C;

- Proper pH: 7 to 8.5;

- Dissolved oxygen content more than 3mg/lit;

- Water quality for breeding ponds to be clean, unpolluted.

No.

Criteria

Unit

Optimal level

Permitted extension

Note

1

BOD5

mg/l

≤ 20

< 30

 

2

NH3

mg/l

≤ 0.1

≤ 0.3

More toxic as pH and heat are high

3

H2S

mg/l

≤ 0.02

≤ 0.05

More toxic as pH is down

4

pH

 

7.0 ÷ 8.5

7 ÷ 9

Fluctuates throughout the day not exceeding 0.5

5

DO

mg/l

≥ 3.0

≥ 2.0

 

6

Alkali

mg CaCO3/l

80 ÷ 120

60 ÷ 180

 

3. Contents of catfish intensive farming process in the pond

a) Preparation of ponds:

- Drain the pond, remove all trash fishes, the fierce fishes, clean up the grass around the banks, fill all cavities, fix the erosion, landslide, check water supply and sewage drainage;

- Dredge bottom sediments, spread lime powder in bottom and pond banks with an amount of lime around 7 - 10kg/100 m2; expose pond bottom from 1 to 2 days;

- Supply water into the pond through the filtering net to prevent harms for the breeding fish. When the pond water level is at a prescribed depth of about 3m, let breeding fishes out into the pond.

b) Let breeding fishes out into the pond:

- The quality of breeding fishes: Breeding catfish for being commercial products must meet quality requirements in accordance with provisions of sector standards 28TCN 170:2001 (Freshwater Fishes – Breeding Fish of species: Tai Tuong, Catfish and Basa – Requirements on technique) or by the current regulations of the state, certified breed quality by the State agency. Breeding Catfish is required to have the quarantine certificate of the competent agency;

- Stocking-season: Follow the seasonal calendar every year in each locality;

- Breeding density: from 20 to 40 catfishes/m2.

c) Management, care:

- Feed: mixture feed in the form of pellet processed industry (industrial feed) supplied by the plants manufacturing animal feed. Feed must be on the list of feed which are allowed to circulate in Vietnam issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

+ Requirements on quality of feed in the breeding stages: assurance of quality and hygiene, safety for breeding catfish must comply with the provisions of Sector Standard 28TCN 176:2002 or under the current regulations of the state.

+ Method of feeding:

Every day, feed fishes 2-4 times, with the industrial feed ration under the guidance of the manufacturer;

When feeding, the feed must be brought down to the pond gradually for the entire fishes in the pond to be edible; and feed to be used up, not causing waste and environmental pollution.

- Pond Management:

+ Daily, pay attention to monitor the operation of the fishes, feed utilization levels, weather conditions to adjust the amount of feed for reasonableness and effectiveness.

+ Regularly check, observe ponds for detection and timely treatment of abnormal phenomena such as pond water leak, banks collapse, culverts damage.

+ When detecting fish’s floating phenomenon different from the normality, it must quickly determine the cause for taking timely measures.

+ Daily, change water for the pond, about 25-30% of pond water volume. It can combine the pond aeration if it has conditions and use biological products to treat and stabilize pond environment.

+ Fishes inspection: Once every month, inspect the fishes. During the inspection, catch randomly about 25-30 individuals to determine the volume, assess the growth of fishes and find the illness status of fishes in the pond for taking treatment measures.

- Prevention and treatment for fishes:

+ Regular monitor, check pond water environment to ensure pond water to be clean. If the water environment is detected to be bad, fishes are detected to poorly eat, or illness occurs, must take timely treatment measures.

+ When the fishes show signs of illness, it should notify the technician or fisheries veterinary management agencies of locality for determining the type of disease and guiding treatment. The use of veterinary drugs, biological products, microorganisms, and chemicals to prevent disease for fishes shall comply with the manufacturer's instructions and regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. It must have a diary to record fully changes in disease and use of veterinary drugs, biological products, microorganisms, and chemicals, method of treatment, treatment outcomes.

d) Harvest:

- When the fishes have reached commercial product quality and depending on the requirements of the market, it can carry the harvest for the entire fishes in the pond;

- Establishments of breeding catfish must stop using antibiotics, chemicals before harvesting fishes under the manufacturer's instructions.

 

APPENDIX VI

TECHNOLOGY PROCESS OF INTENSIVE FARMING OF SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON) SUBJECT TO PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

1. Subjects and scope of application

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements for intensive shrimp (Penaeus monodon, Fabricus 1798), applied to farms in the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government to participate in pilot agricultural insurance.

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements for intensive farming of shrimp (Penaeus monodon, Fabricus 1798), applied to the farms in the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government participating in pilot agricultural insurance.

2. Conditions of application

a) Pond conditions:

- Pond has an area of 2,000 m2 or more; water depth from 1.2m or more;

- Pond must have separate water supply and sewage drainage, pond banks are required firmly, not being leaked. Pond bottom must be reinforced waterproof, flat base, steep tilt toward the drains.

b) The pond water environment in the process of breeding shrimp must be ensured to meet the following criteria:

No.

Criteria

Unit

Optimal level

Permitted extension

1

BOD5

mg/l

≤ 20

< 30

2

NH3

mg/l

≤ 0.1

< 0.3

3

H2S

mg/l

≤ 0.03

< 0.05

4

NO2

mg/l

≤ 0.25

< 0.35

5

pH

 

7.5 ÷ 8.5

8.0 ÷ 8.3

7 ÷ 9, fluctuation in day not exceeding 0.5

6

Temperature

0C

20 ÷ 30

18 - 33

7

Saltness

10 ÷ 25

5 ÷ 35

8

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

mg/l

≥ 4

≥ 3.5

9

Clarity

cm

30 ÷ 35

20 ÷ 50

10

Alkali

mg/l

80 ÷ 120

60 ÷ 180

3. Contents of process of shrimp intensive farming

a) Pond preparation: Before each season of shrimp, it must prepare ponds according to the following contents:

- Drain the water in ponds, dredge, plow, lime, dry pond;

- For ponds which just have been built and ponds which are of the acidic, alkaline regions, prior to breeding, it must remove acidity by the following measures:

+ Sprinkle lime on the pond bottom and inside of the pond banks. The amount of lime powder used depends on soil’s pH, refer to the following table:

Table: The amount of lime to remove the acidity of pond used for breeding shrimp

pH of soil in bottom, pond banks

Amount of lime (kg/ha)

5.1 – 5.5

800 - 1000

5.6 – 6.0

500 - 800

6.1 – 6.5

200 - 500

6.6 – 7.0

100 - 200

+ Keep dry pond in about 7-10 days;

+ Get the deposited water from the containing pond into the breeding pond through filtering net with mesh size 2a = 5 mm; water level of 1.5 m or more;

+ For the old pond: lime an amount of 100-200 kg/ha;

+ Removal of extraneous matter: Use some types of chemicals killing extraneous matter permitted for circulation in Vietnam and use according to directions on labels;

+ Fertilization creating natural feed culture: 7 days prior to stocking breeding shrimps, use inorganic fertilizers to fertilize the pond. Use additional biological products, or artificial algae to create water color and culture beneficial bacteria in the pond;

After 7 days, if breeding shrimps have not been dropped, it must re-conduct the measure fertilizing to create natural feed for the pond;

+ Drugs, substances of treatment and improvement of the environment used must be the one included in the list of those permitted for circulation in Vietnam and as directed by the manufacturer.

b) Stocking the breeding shrimp:

- Time to raise per season: 3-4 months (from PL 15);

- The number of breeding seasons per year: 1-2 seasons;

- Stocking season: In compliance with farming seasonal calendar of each locality;

- Breeding shrimp must be ensured quality by Vietnam standards and current regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; it must have quarantine certificates of specialized management agencies. Breeding shrimps must be bought from the facilities which have been issued certificates of achieving quality standard;

- Stocking density: more than 20 shrimps/m2;

- Regulated size of breeds: PL15;

- Stocking method: stock at dawn or dusk, when pond water’s temperature is low in day. Avoid stocking shrimps when it is hot; water temperature is high or when it is raining. It needs to soak breed bag in the breeding pond for about 10-15 minutes before stocking shrimp into the pond.

c) Care:

Feeding shrimps: use industrial pellet feed processed domestically or imported feed for feeding shrimp. Quality of feed must be ensured to have the total nitrogen content from 30 to 40%. Feed and its additives must be on the list of feed which are allowed to circulate in Vietnam.

- Time of feeding shrimps and amount of feed of each time in day: Refer to in the following table:

Table: The time of feeding shrimps and amount of feed of each time in day

Time in day

Percentage % feeding compared with total weight of feed per

6 o’clock

20

10 o’clock

10

16 o’clock

20

20 o’clock

25

23 o’clock

25

- The amount of feed based on age and weight of shrimp raised in pond are under the manufacturer's instructions.

- Method of feeding: When feeding shrimp, it must spread evenly throughout the pond surface. Each feeding, it needs to check the status of shrimp’s feed use to adjust feed intake accordingly for the next time. Method to check and adjust as follows:

+ Each ha of shrimp breeding pond is placed from 6 to 8 trays (floor of feeding) around the pond. Area of each floor of feeding is about 0.4 to 0.8m2. After spreading feed evenly throughout the pond surface, retain from 2-4% of the amount of feed which has just fed shrimp to spread in the floor of feeding; about 1-3 hours later, re-inspect the floor of feeding to decide on the increase or decrease of the amount of feed for the next time;

+ When finding the shrimp to be molt, reduce 20-30% of amount of feed for the next time;

+ When finding the shrimps to get feed poorly, pond water to be unclear or on the hot sunny days, water temperature is high, reduce the amount of feed for shrimp;

+ In the cool days, it can increase the amount of feed for shrimp.

d) Water Management:

- Treatment of water to supply to the breeding pond: During the pond preparation and before stocking breeding shrimp, it must take water into sedimentation containing ponds for biological treatment. If water is contaminated, it must be handled by chlorine treatment with a concentration of about 30 ppm for 12 hours or fomol with a concentration of 30ppm or chemicals on the list of permitted circulation in Vietnam. Not to get water into the pond in the rainy, storm days.

- Get water into the breeding pond: Regular maintain the water pond depth of 1.5 m or more.

- Supplement water for the breeding pond: On the hot days, water temperature and salinity increase highly, it must timely to add new water treated to stabilize the temperature and salinity for shrimp breeding ponds. Amount of newly added water each time is about 10-15% by volume of pond water.

- Change water for the breeding pond:

+ When the pond water is contaminated or shrimps are ill or shrimps are difficult to moult, it must carry out withdrawal of pond bottom water layer of about 10-15% of volume of pond water to replace with new water treated for the pond;

+ When the pond water salinity exceeds 30%, it must add fresh water to reduce salinity below 30%.

- Check the quality of pond water:

+ Daily monitor the indicators of dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, depth, clarity and color of pond water;

+ Periodically, monitor the indicators of environmental factors of the pond water such as BOD, NH3-N, H2S, NO2-N to adjust to suit the raised shrimp.

đ) Pond Management: Contents of pond management include the following tasks:

- Every day, check the pond banks, culverts, ditches, detect and promptly handle leaks, hollows, landslides;

- Regularly clean trash nets, water filter, floor of feeding, remove trash and dirt, algae around the pond, banks, pond corners, manholes, water fan.

- Always ensure content of dissolved oxygen in water more than 4 mg/liter according to the breeding technical requirements by the following measures:

+ Each pond should have an air compressor to blow air from the pond bottom to increase volume of dissolved oxygen and evenly distribute water oxygen;

+ Each pond should put at least two water fans to increase volume of dissolved oxygen and produce flow for the waste collection into the middle of pond bottom;

+ Time and mode of operation of the above machinery depend on the amount of oxygen dissolved in water, density and size of shrimp. In general, the number of hours of operation is increased from a few hours each day in the first month of culture to 14-16 hours per day when approaching harvest time. On the days of bad weather, it can operate the machines continuously all day; in the course of use, regularly check the system of water fans; aeration machine to repair, adjust promptly the damages;

- Once every 10 days, sample breeding shrimp (30 shrimps/sample) to check the growth rate. In the first two months, it is sampled with hooves, from third month onwards, it is sampled with casting-net;

- Regularly check ponds, if trash fishes are detected, it must be handled timely by use of chemicals killing miscellaneous matters.

e) Management of shrimp health:

- Regularly observe shrimp activity, especially at night in order to promptly detect abnormalities in the pond;

- Once every 10 days, sample one time to observe supplementation, the color of shrimp body, the feed in the stomach, intestines, gills, liver, pancreas;

- When finding the shrimps to have abnormal or pathological signs, must clearly identify the reasons for handling.

g) Harvest:

- Use casting-net to catch sampling to check medium volume and the expression of shrimp diseases. If the shrimps have reached an average size of more than 25g/individual, then conduct the harvest;

- The shrimp farms must stop using antibiotics, chemicals before the shrimp harvest as directed by the manufacturer.

 

APPENDIX VII

TECHNOLOGY PROCESS OF SEMI-INTENSIVE FARMING OF SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON) SUBJECT TO PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

1. Subjects and scope of application

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements for semi-intensive farming of shrimp (Penaeus monodon, Fabricus 1798), applied to the farms in the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government participating in pilot agricultural insurance for shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

2. Conditions of application

a) Pond conditions:

- Pond has an area of 1,000 m2 or more; water depth from 1.2m or more;

- Pond must have separate water supply and sewage drainage, pond banks are required firmly, not being leaked. Pond bottom must be reinforced waterproof, flat base, steep tilt toward the drains (or use pumper to pump water in and out).

b) The pond water environment in the process of breeding shrimp must be ensured to meet the following criteria:

Table: Indicators of water quality in the pond environment

No.

Criteria

Unit

Optimal level

Permitted extension

1

BOD5

mg/l

≤ 20

< 30

2

NH3

mg/l

≤ 0.1

< 0.3

3

H2S

mg/l

≤ 0.03

< 0.05

4

NO2

mg/l

≤ 0.25

< 0.35

5

pH

 

7.5 ÷ 8.5

8.0 ÷ 8.3

7 ÷ 9, fluctuation in day not exceeding 0.5

6

Temperature

0C

20 ¸ 30

18 ÷ 33

7

Saltness

10 ¸ 25

5 ÷ 35

8

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

mg/l

≥ 4

≥ 3.5

9

Clarity

cm

30 ÷ 35

20 ÷ 50

10

Alkali

mg/l

80 ÷ 120

60 ÷ 180

3. The contents of the process (see process of intensive farming shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of pilot application of agricultural insurance)

a) Preparation of pond:

Before each shrimp season, it must prepare ponds according to the following contents:

- Drain water in pond, dredge, plow, lime, dry pond;

- For new ponds and pond construction in the acidic, alkaline, acidic removal prior to adoption by the following measures:

+ Sprinkle lime are present in the pond and the pond. The amount of lime used depending on soil pH, refer to the following table:

Table: The amount of lime to remove the acidity of pond

- For ponds which just have been built and ponds which are of the acidic, alkaline regions, prior to breeding, it must remove acidity by the following measures:

+ Sprinkle lime on the pond bottom and inside of the pond banks. The amount of lime powder used depends on soil’s pH, refer to the following table:

Table: The amount of lime to remove the acidity of pond used for breeding shrimp

pH of soil in bottom, pond banks

Amount of lime (kg/ha)

5.1 – 5.5

800 - 1000

5.6 – 6.0

500 - 800

6.1 – 6.5

200 - 500

6.6 – 7.0

100 - 200

+ Keep dry pond in about 7-10 days;

+ Get the deposited water from the containing pond into the breeding pond through filtering net with mesh size 2a = 5 mm; water level of 1.5 m or more;

+ For the old pond: lime an amount of 100-200 kg/ha;

+ Removal of extraneous matter: Use some types of chemicals killing extraneous matter permitted for circulation in Vietnam and use according to directions on labels;

+ Fertilization creating natural feed culture: 7 days prior to stocking breeding shrimps, use inorganic fertilizers to fertilize the pond. Use additional biological products, or artificial algae to create water color and culture beneficial bacteria in the pond;

After 7 days, if breeding shrimps have not been stocked, it must re-conduct the measure fertilizing to create natural feed for the pond;

+ Drugs, substances of treatment and improvement of the environment used must be the one included in the list of those permitted for circulation in Vietnam and as directed by the manufacturer

b) Stocking the breeding shrimp:

- Time to raise per season: 3-4 months (from PL 15);

- The number of breeding seasons per year: 1-2 seasons;

- Stocking season: In compliance with farming seasonal calendar of each locality;

- Breeding shrimp must be ensured quality by Vietnam standards and current regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; it must have quarantine certificates of specialized management agencies. Breeding shrimps must be bought from the facilities which have been issued certificates of achieving quality standard;

- Stocking density: less than 20 shrimps/m2;

- Regulated size of breeds: PL15;

- Stocking method: stock at dawn or dusk, when pond water’s temperature is low in day. Avoid stocking shrimps when it is hot; water temperature is high or when it is raining. It needs to soak breed bag in the breeding pond for about 10-15 minutes before stocking shrimp into the pond.

c) Care:

Feeding shrimps: use industrial pellet feed processed domestically or imported feed for feeding shrimp. Quality of feed must be ensured to have the total nitrogen content from 30 to 40%. Feed and its additives must be on the list of feed which are allowed to circulate in Vietnam.

- Time of feeding shrimps and amount of feed of each time in day: Refer to in the following table:

Table: The time of feeding shrimps and amount of feed of each time in day

Time in day

Percentage % feeding compared with total weight of feed per

6 o’clock

20

10 o’clock

10

16 o’clock

20

20 o’clock

25

23 o’clock

25

- The amount of feed is based on age and weight of shrimp in ponds under the manufacturer's instructions;

- Method of feeding: When feeding shrimp, it must spread evenly throughout the pond surface. Each feeding, it needs to check the status of shrimp’s feed use to adjust feed intake accordingly for the next time. Method to check and adjust as follows:

+ Each ha of shrimp breeding pond is placed from 6 to 8 trays (floor of feeding) around the pond. Area of each floor of feeding is about 0.4 to 0.8m2. After spreading feed evenly throughout the pond surface, retain from 2-4% of the amount of feed which has just fed shrimp to spread in the floor of feeding; about 1-3 hours later, re-inspect the floor of feeding to decide on the increase or decrease of the amount of feed for the next time;

+ When finding the shrimp to be molt, reduce 20-30% of amount of feed for the next time;

+ When finding the shrimps to get feed poorly, pond water to be unclear or on the hot sunny days, water temperature is high, reduce the amount of feed for shrimp;

+ In the cool days, it can increase the amount of feed for shrimp.

d) Water Management:

- Treatment of water to supply to the breeding pond: During the pond preparation and before stocking breeding shrimp, it must take water into sedimentation containing ponds for biological treatment. If water is contaminated, it must be handled by chlorine treatment with a concentration of about 30 ppm for 12 hours or fomol with a concentration of 30ppm or chemicals on the list of permitted circulation in Vietnam. Not to get water into the pond in the rainy, storm days.

- Get water into the breeding pond: Regular maintain the water pond depth of 1.5 m or more.

- Supplement water for the breeding pond: On the hot days, water temperature and salinity increase highly, it must timely to add new water treated to stabilize the temperature and salinity for shrimp breeding ponds. Amount of newly added water each time is about 10-15% by volume of pond water.

- Change water for the breeding pond:

+ When the pond water is contaminated or shrimps are ill or shrimps are difficult to moult, it must carry out withdrawal of pond bottom water layer of about 10-15% of volume of pond water to replace with new water treated for the pond;

+ When the pond water salinity exceeds 30%, it must add fresh water to reduce salinity below 30%.

- Check the quality of pond water:

+ Daily monitor the indicators of dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, depth, clarity and color of pond water;

+ Periodically, monitor the indicators of environmental factors of the pond water such as BOD, NH3-N, H2S, NO2-N to adjust to suit the raised shrimp.

đ) Pond Management: Contents of pond management include the following tasks:

- Every day, check the pond banks, culverts, ditches, detect and promptly handle leaks, hollows, landslides;

- Regularly clean trash nets, water filter, floor of feeding, remove trash and dirt, algae around the pond, banks, pond corners, manholes, water fan.

- Always ensure content of dissolved oxygen in water more than 4 mg/liter according to the breeding technical requirements by the following measures:

+ Each pond should have an air compressor to blow air from the pond bottom to increase volume of dissolved oxygen and evenly distribute water oxygen;

+ Each pond should put at least two water fans to increase volume of dissolved oxygen and produce flow for the waste collection into the middle of pond bottom;

+ Time and mode of operation of the above machinery depend on the amount of oxygen dissolved in water, density and size of shrimp. In general, the number of hours of operation is increased from a few hours each day in the first month of culture to 14-16 hours per day when approaching harvest time. On the days of bad weather, it can operate the machines continuously all day;

In the course of use, regularly checks the system of water fans, aeration machine to repair, adjust promptly the damages;

- Once every 10 days, sample breeding shrimp (30 shrimps/sample) to check the growth rate. In the first two months, it is sampled with hooves, from third month onwards, it is sampled with casting-net;

- Regularly check ponds, if trash fishes are detected, it must be handled timely by use of chemicals killing miscellaneous matters.

e) Management of shrimp health:

- Regularly observe shrimp activity, especially at night in order to promptly detect abnormalities in the pond;

- Once every 10 days, sample one time to observe supplementation, the color of shrimp body, the feed in the stomach, intestines, gills, liver, pancreas;

- When finding the shrimps to have abnormal or pathological signs, must clearly identify the reasons for handling.

g) Harvest:

- Use casting-net to catch sampling to check medium volume and the expression of shrimp diseases. If the shrimps have reached an average size of more than 25g/individual, then conduct the harvest;

- The shrimp farms must stop using antibiotics, chemicals before the shrimp harvest as directed by the manufacturer.

 

APPENDIX VIII

TECHNOLOGY PROCESS OF IMPROVING EXTENSIVE FARMING OF SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON) SUBJECT TO PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

1. Subjects and scope of application

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements for improving extensive farming of shrimp (Penaeus monodon, Fabricus 1798), applied to the farms in the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government participating in pilot agricultural insurance.

2. Conditions of application

- Pond has an area of 7,000 m2 or more; water depth of 1.2 m or more; The ponds having area of more than 1 ha will be required to have from 1/3 to 1/2 pond’s area reached a depth of at least 1.2m. Pond banks must be firmly; not be leaked to keep the water and prevent the spread of disease if the environment of the breeding area is not good.

3. The process of improving extensive farming of shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

a) Preparation of ponds:

- Dredge the pond bottom mud layer about 20cm deep to avoid dredging too deep because the salt-water lands have potential acid layer away the ground surface only about 50cm. Repair pond banks, clean grasses, trash and dirt;

- Lime: Depending on the pH of the soil to fertilize appropriate amount of lime;

- Dry the pond bottom.

b) Water treatment:

Get water into pond through net preventing miscellaneous matters, damages. Pond water level is from 1.2 m or more. Use chlorine with an amount of 30g/ water cupid meter or other chemicals according to manufacturer's instructions for water treatment, after 5 days, conduct the creation of watercolor; mix DAP inorganic fertilizer with water to spread evenly around the pond with an amount of 300 - 500g/100 m2 of pond for water quickly to have color. Encourage the farms use biological products for water treatment. When water’s color is the yellow color of the green peas cover, then stock breeds. If drugs, substances of treatment and improvement of the environment are used, they must be the one included in the list of those permitted for circulation in Vietnam and as directed by the manufacturer.

c) Removal of trash fishes:

The case by case basis, if there are many fierce fishes in the pond, kill them by the following forms: Use chemicals as directed by the manufacturer or kill them by such means as: fishing, spreading a net ... It should keep the fishes eating natural food, eating selectively, not eating shrimp to clean water and have extra income.

d) Selection of breeds:

Choose the uninfected, healthy breeds which have been supplied by the prestigious producing farms that have been grant certificate of qualification. It should stock PL12-PL15-sized shrimps. Shrimp breeds must be granted certificate of quarantine by the competent authority. Method of selection of breeds is as follows:

- Methods of sense organs: Healthy breeding shrimps shall have bright color, no uninjured, same sizes, agile; slender, long, spreading fan-shaped tail, closed V-shaped beard when swimming. It can assess health of shrimps by using water basin to stock shrimp in, rotate water, healthy shrimp will cling to the basin wall, swim upstream; and weak shrimp will be primarily collected in the middle of the basin, when tap into the basin wall, healthy shrimp will respond quickly by flip jump, in addition, it can check with "shock" salinity.

- Method of causing shock by salinity: Take 100 breeding shrimps and stock into the glass of water (a half of the water taken from the breeds farms and a half to be fresh water) and wait for 45 minutes - 1 hour. If shrimps are died under-5 shrimps, that breed can be chosen for stocking.

đ) Stocking and training of breeds:

- Training of breeds: pure method (salinity, pH, temperature ....): Stock all shrimps and water of the shrimp bag into a plastic barrel of 60 liters, then take water of the shrimp breeding pond to pour into the plastic barrel containing shrimp breeding (5 minutes pour 1 liter), or use water bag to hang on the barrel mouth for water to flow gradually into the barrel. Until the barrel is filled with water, then it can proceed to stock shrimps into the pond.

- Stocking breeds: It should stock shrimp in a wind-swept place, stock at dawn or dusk (not stocking when it is heavy rain). Stocking density is from 8-10 shrimps/ m2.

e) Environmental management in the pond:

Because of extensive farming form, so it is difficult to manage factors such as alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, NH3 and H2S toxic gas ... so we can only manage factors such as pH, water clarity and color.

Pond water is good conditions for micro-organisme and algae to grow, so depending on which algae dominates, it will make the water color be different and also affect shrimps:

- Yellow-brown water: Mainly caused by Tao Khue (Diatomeae), this algae is a good type of feed for shrimp;

- Pale blue water: caused by green algae, this is also a good type of feed for shrimp;

- Dark blue water: caused by deep blue algae, this algae is not good for shrimp’s growth (growth retardation) and causes the phenomenon of blue shrimp (treatment by replacing 30-50% of water in the pond);

- Dark brown water: caused by Tao giap (dinoflagellata). This algae can cause environmental contamination, be very harmful to the shrimps. (Discharge water in, out constantly to clean up the environment combined with the use of racket to pick up the Lap Lap in the pond);

- Yellow water: caused by yellow algae, causing malnutrition to environment, so shrimp shall be slow to grow and survival rate is low. (Handling by replacing 30-50% of water in pond and lime CaCO3 with a dose of 15-20 kg/1,000 m3 water);

- Clear water or water with rusty yellow: formed by alkaline soil so pH is very low. Algae is less developed, shrimps are lack of feed, slow to grow and survival rate is low;

To stabilize the water quality in shrimp pond, it needs to pay attention to water intake, do not get water into the pond when water of the channel (river) is too dirty, to discharge surface water in pond and lime CaCO3 of 15 - 20kg/1,000 m2 on pond banks at the times of heavy rain. It is better to use lime of CaCO3 with a dose of 15 - 20kg/1,000 m3 after the end of harvest to kill miscellaneous matters, disinfect, stimulate algae growth and to avoid the shrimp’ being shocked by the pH change.

g) Management of feed in the pond:

Because shrimps are raised under form of improving extensive farming, so the shrimp density is less than 10 shrimps/m2, not using industrial feed, its major feed source is natural feed (algae and micro-phytoplankton) which is available in shrimp ponds. To complement feed for raised shrimps, leaves can be added into pond such as Mangrove leaves, “Mam” leaves (with the highest nitrogen content), “Da”, “Gia”, weeds, vines .... Because bacteria decompose these leaves into good feed for shrimps, and this is also the source of green manure to improve the color of pond water and enable the beneficial algae growth and development. It can periodically use biological products under the manufacturer's instructions.

h) Epidemic management: This is one of the very difficult tasks in the process of improving extensive farming of shrimps, because shrimps are raised in a wide area, so it could not be based on treatment with drugs and chemicals, but can only control epidemics through the inputs. A few notes for farmers to be able to limit the epidemics during the shrimp farming process:

- Repair pond according to proper technique;

- Select and stock the good breeds which have been quarantined;

- Apply the method of taking and discharging water through the sewer (referred to in section 1) to clean water;

- In the case shrimps got trouble, the water level in the pond must be lowered down to one third for a period from 15-30 days, at the same time use the manual method (pick up the shrimp got disease) in order to avoid spread of disease.

i) Harvest of shrimps: After shrimps are about 4-5 months old, it can harvest them.

* Note: During the shrimp farming, not to use drugs, chemicals, antibiotics which are in the banned list (the Circular No.15/2009/TT-BNNPTNT) If feed, drugs, biologic products, products of treatment and improvement of the environment are used in shrimp farming, they must be the one included in the list of those permitted for circulation in Vietnam.

 

APPENDIX IX

TECHNOLOGY PROCESS OF INTENSIVE FARMING OF SHRIMP (LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI) SUBJECT TO PILOT INSURANCE
(Issued together with Circular No.47/2011/TT-BNNPTNT dated June 29, 2011 of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development)

1. Subjects and scope of application

This procedure shall specify the order, content and technical requirements for intensive farming of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei), applied to the farms in the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government participating in pilot agricultural insurance.

2. Conditions of application

- Water supplied from sea water, not polluted;

- Fence with net around the pond for avoiding intermediate host species causing disease such as crabs and mall crabs, snakes ...

- Pond area is from 1,000 m2 or more, the water level reaches 1.4 m or more;

- Pond must have separate inlet and outlet culverts and made sure not being leaked. Inlet culvert must have a water filter to remove trash, pest and waste lawn into the pond when supplying the water into pond (or use pumper to pump water into or out the pond);

- Raising infrastructure must meet production requirements.

3. Contents of intensive farming process of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei)

a) Preparation of pond:

- Pond repair:

+ Dredge sediments, plow pond bottom, lime with an appropriate amount. Repair pond banks, check sewers system, the channels system of water supply and drainage. Reinforce pond banks firmly, not being leaked, osmotic;

+ Dry pond bottom 3-4 days for sterilizing pond bottom;

+ Get water in pond through the filter, reaching 1.4 m or more.

- Water treatment:

+ Water disinfection: it can use one of the types of chemicals such as iodine compounds, potassium permanganate... with an amount as instructed by the manufacturer;

+ If the pond raised sick shrimps at the previous season, so it should make water disinfection by chlorine with concentration of 20 ppm.

- Add beneficial bacteria to create water color:

+ 2 -3 days after water treatment was conducted, use biologic products to create water color to create natural feed for breeding shrimps;

+ Creation of water color should be done in the warm weather. NPK fertilizer is often used (type 20-20 -0) with urea in a 1:1 ratio for an amount of 1-2 kg/1,000 m3 in 2-3 days;

+ Time to create watercolor is about 4-5 days, when the color of water in the pond is good, then stock breeding shrimps. Good water color is brown or green of premature banana leaves, clarity degree is from 30cm to 40cm;

+ It should check pH, alkalinity ... to control these factors in the suitable range for shrimp farming.

- Physical-chemical indicators of pond water are required to achieve before stocking breeding shrimps:

No.

Criteria

Unit

Optimal level

Permitted extension

1

BOD5

mg/l

≤ 20

< 30

2

NH3

mg/l

≤ 0,1

< 0,3

3

H2S

mg/l

≤ 0.03

< 0.05

4

NO2

mg/l

≤ 0.25

< 0.35

5

pH

 

7.5 ÷ 8.5

8.0 ÷ 8.3

7 ÷ 9, fluctuation in day not exceeding 0.5

6

Temperature

0C

20 ÷ 30

18 ÷ 33

7

Saltness

10 ÷ 25

5 ÷ 35

8

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

mg/l

≥ 4

≥ 3,5

9

Clarity

cm

30 ÷ 35

20 ÷ 50

10

Alkali

mg/l

80 ÷ 120

60 ÷ 180

b) Stocking breeds:

- Selection of breeding shrimp:

+ Origin: PL12 white legs breeding shrimp must be produced from broodstock of quality assurance in accordance with provisions, with a clear origin and quarantine certificates by competent agencies.

Breeding shrimps for farming must be ensured quality by standards of Vietnam and the current regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

+ Criteria of sense organs:

The operating status: shrimps swim by herd, upstream run continuously around the tank or basin, well reflect upon the impact of sudden loud noise or light;

- Appearance: complete auxiliary parts, the rectangular belly internode; balance head and body, no defects; tail opened V-shaped when swimming;

Color: natural color of the species.

Body length: body length is more than 9mm, shrimps have the same size, and different ratio is not more than 10%.

- Breeding stocking:

+ Stock shrimps into the pond when the pond water has been created color well for enough natural feed for shrimps. Before shrimps are stocked, it needs to check the environmental factors such as pH, alkalinity, salinity ... between the breeding farms and ponds. If there is a difference, it must be adjusted appropriately to avoid causing shock to the breeding herd;

+ Stock at dawn or dusk, when pond water’s temperature is low in day. Avoid stocking shrimps when it is hot; water temperature is high or when it is raining. It needs to soak breed bag in the breeding pond for about 10-15 minutes before stocking shrimp into the pond:

+ Stocking season: Compliance with seasonal calendar of each locality;

+ Stocking densities: more than 60 shrimps/ m2.

c) Care, Management:

+ Feed and feed supplements must be the one included in the list of those permitted for circulation in Vietnam;

+ Feeding (number of times to feed, amount of feeding, method of feeding) is in compliance with instruction of the manufacturer;

+ Regularly monitor the use of shrimp feed to adjust properly to avoid causing waste and feed excess polluting the water in the pond.

- Management of ponds environment: Regular monitor water color changes, changes of environmental indicators, shrimp health to take measures of timely handling.

* A few notes:

+ The water level in the pond should be maintained at lowest level as 1.4 m;

+ Periodically, supplement probiotics to limit environmental pollution;

+ Raise the water level to achieve maximum level for temperature stability;

+ When getting the water in, it needs to consult environmental monitoring information provided by the agency of local fisheries management.

* Note: During the shrimp farming, not to use drugs, chemicals, antibiotics which are in the banned list (the Circular No.15/2009/TT-BNNPTNT) If feed, drugs, biologic products, products of treatment and improvement of the environment are used in shrimp farming, they must be the one included in the list of those permitted for circulation in Vietnam.

d) Harvest

- The farms raising shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) must stop using antibiotics, chemicals before harvest of shrimp occurs as directed by the manufacturer.

- When the shrimps reach the size of 70-100 shrimps/kg, it should conduct the harvest. Before proceeding the harvest, it needs to monitor molting cycle, limit state of shrimp’s soft shell at the above period./.

 


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